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2.2 What it's like

Suppose you have just had a dental procedure under general anaesthetic and are coming round. You are aware of a dazzling light above you and of a muffled voice echoing in your ears. There is sickness in your stomach and a sharp metallic taste in your mouth. You feel a moment of panic as you struggle to work out what has happened. Moving your head, you recognise the dentist's face and realise that he is speaking your name and asking if you want a glass of water. Your remember where you are, si
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1 Consciousness

Consciousness: The having of perceptions, thoughts, and feelings; awareness. The term is impossible to define except in terms that are unintelligible without a grasp of what consciousness means.… Consciousness is a fascinating but elusive phenomenon: it is impossible to specify what it is, what it does, or why it evolved. Nothing worth reading has been written about it.

(Sutherland 1995, 95)


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2.4 The meaning of expressions versus the meaning of individual utterances

I drew a contrast at the beginning of the chapter between those approaches to the meaning of utterances that look to the meaning of the words used, and those approaches that look instead to the content of the mental or psychological states of speakers. Grice belongs to the second camp. He aims to show that the meaning of an expression (e.g. a word or a sentence) is derivative, definable in terms of how that expression is typically used in meaningful utterances. The meaning of individual utter
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1.3 Representation and thought

It would be surprising if the meaning of our utterances turned out not to derive, in part at least, from the thoughts and other mental states that these utterances express. Were that so, language would be failing in one of its main functions. Ordinarily, an utterance of the sentence, ‘The German economy is bouncing back’, is intended to express the thought that the German economy is bouncing back, typically so that the audience will come to adopt this same thought. It is hard to se
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3 Hero and author

What, if anything, does Doctor Faustus tell us about its notorious author? Having read the play, do you feel that it supports or invalidates the dominant view of Marlowe as the bad boy of Elizabethan drama? There is certainly no doubt that the play has a defiant streak, that it calls into question the justice of a universe that places restrictions on human achievement and demands the eternal suffering of those who disobey its laws. On this level, it does seem to be the work of an autho
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2.2 Act 2, Scene 1: Faustus and God

By the end of Act 1, Faustus appears to have made up his mind to sell his soul to the devil in exchange for twenty-four years in which he will ‘live in all voluptuousness’ (1.3.94). Act 2, Scene 1 opens with another soliloquy.

Activity

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5.4 Clinics and outpatient services

In addition to acquiring greater access to general practitioners in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, poor patients also received more medical help from the outpatient departments of charitable hospitals and dispensaries. Hospital outpatient departments were an increasingly popular source of care: between 1860 and 1900, the number of patients attending the outpatient department of the London Hospital increased from 25,000 to 220,000. By 1910, there were 1.75 million attendanc
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3.2 The push for – and opposition to – women in medicine

In Britain, the campaign for access to the medical profession began at Edinburgh University in 1869, and was led by Sophia Jex-Blake (1840–1913). Influenced by the feminist movement of the time, Jex-Blake had a wide-ranging education and was keen to earn an independent living. She fought a relentless battle with the Edinburgh University authorities. Initially, the university refused to admit a lone female student, so Jex-Blake recruited a small group of women. Once admitted, the women were
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References

Donnachie, I. (2000) Robert Owen: Owen of New Lanark and New Harmony, East Linton, Tuckwell Press.
Donnachie, I. and Hewitt, G. (1999) Historic New Lanark: The Dale and Owen Industrial Community since 1785, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press (first published 1993).
Harrison, J.F.C. (1969) Robert Owen and the Owenites in Britain and America, London, Ro
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3 Politics: Radicalism and reaction

Although ambiguous in his political views, Robert Owen could hardly avoid politics. As we shall see, he assiduously cultivated politicians or anyone else in authority who might be persuaded to support his plans for social reform.

The political background to Owen's essays is extremely important and complex, but on the international front the key features were undoubtedly the ideas underpinning the French Revolution, and the subsequent French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, which had c
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2.6 Culloden visitor survey

In the light of recent reinterpretation of the site, which includes more and different voices to the portrayal of the battlefield, Glasgow Caledonian University (GCU) undertook a preliminary visitor survey in April 2006 in order to begin to understand how the site figured in the construction of identity for Scots and other visitors (McLean et al., 2007).

When questioned about their motives for visiting the site, many cited educational reasons; however, a large number also came as
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • understand the significant issues affecting heritage;

  • engage effectively in debates about heritage issues in Scotland.


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6.3.3 Specific heats

Finally, we must consider Black's contribution to the discovery of specific heats, the fact that different substances take up heat at different rates. Two experiments on mercury and water had indicated the problem. Fahrenheit had found that mixing equal volumes of mercury and water produced a striking result. If the mercury was initially hotter than the water, the temperature of the mixture was less than the average, and the reverse was true if the water was originally hotter. Martine's exper
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2.4 The economy

Turning lastly to the late seventeenth-century economy, a similar pattern of historical revision is revealed. Accounts stressing desperate poverty and backwardness have given way to accounts which indicate a more prosperous, vigorous state of affairs. In a survey of the Scottish merchant community, Devine has concluded that although the nation had not fully insulated itself against the calamity of bad harvests, its merchants were forward-looking and ready to innovate. They were not locked int
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4 Conclusion

In this introductory unit, we have aimed to get you started on exploring the Classical world by introducing you to the sources upon which you can build your knowledge and understanding. We have also started your exploration of both time and space in the Classical world. This is only the point of departure; from here you will go on to explore places and time in much more detail and practise more critical analysis of source materials of all types. Good luck with your studies.


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2.4.4 Historiography

This is the writing of history, another type of source that relies on words. Many of the things we said about literature apply to historiography as well, and we won't need to repeat them. The reason we think it's worth having a separate paragraph on historiography is that where literature is associated with art, history-writing is today associated with truth. As a result, it's a natural instinct to read ancient historians with the expectation that they are more reliable sources than literatur
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Introduction

This unit includes reading and writing activities that are geared to developing the use of memory, observation and the senses. The aim is to develop your perceptual abilities, honing your capacity to see detail in the world. You will be encouraged to start seeing the familiar in a new way and to make good use of your own personal history.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University courseAuthor(s): The Open University

5.10 Features of French Romantic art and artists – exercise

Exercise 5

Try to list as many features as you can of French Romantic art and artists, as explored here.

Answer

  1. The Roma
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5.7 Extremes of modernity

Between 1826 and 1828, after seeing in London a dramatic adaptation of Goethe’s play, Delacroix made a series of 18 lithographs of Faust (Plates 31–36 are reproductions of six of these). A mixture of the comic and evil, these lithographs encapsulate both the sublime and Hugo’s grotesque. They are peopled by strange, elongated figures, whose features have been described as ‘mantis-like’; they have ‘overt ball-and-socket jointing for elbows and knees’ and are dressed in six
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1.2 Ideas and influences

The Oriental and the exotic played a central role in this process of artistic negotiation and reconciliation. The Enlightenment’s preoccupation with ‘exotic’ lands as part of an indirect critique of western European societies increasingly competed with visions of the East as a sitalte of fantasy, desire and sensuous pleasure. Like the Prince Regent’s Pavilion, Delacroix’s work also exemplified in many respects a specifically Romantic concern with the Oriental and exotic as a means o
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