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3.3.1 Multisensory teaching for students

Guyer et al. (1993) tested the effectiveness of the Wilson Reading System for improving spelling in higher education students with dyslexia. They compared this technique to a non-phonic approach that teaches visual memory techniques to help students to remember frequently misspelled words. A control group of students with dyslexia but who had specifically requested no intervention formed the control group. Both intervention groups were tutored in the given technique for two, one-hour sessions
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2.4.2 Differences in sensory, perceptual and motor function

As we saw in our discussion of cognitive explanations, there has been longstanding debate over the possible contribution of perceptual problems to dyslexia. Subjectively, many children and adults with dyslexic difficulties do report ‘visual symptoms’ when trying to read. These include letters and words appearing to move or ‘blur’ on the page, particular difficulties with small, crowded print, and complaints of ‘glare’ or other kinds of visual discomfort (see Figure 5).


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2.2.1 The phonological processing deficit

Recall Alexander Faludy's difficulties in learning to read and write, and the other behavioural characteristics associated with having dyslexia. You might have noticed that many features of dyslexia point to a difficulty with some aspects of memory. That is, people with dyslexia have difficulty with tasks that require short-term memory processing such as mental arithmetic, writing and learning new information. However, these tasks have an additional feature in common: they contain a phonologi
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1.5.1 Definition by exclusion

A person is ‘dyslexic’ if no alternative explanation can be offered for their reading and writing difficulties.

In the UK, interest in children who showed a specific lack of ability in literacy grew as all children became entitled to a basic education. For the first time there was an expectation that all adults should be literate. Initially, it was proposed that specific difficulties in learn
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1.2.4 Personal distress

Another way of defining psychological ‘abnormality’ is to ask whether certain behaviours or styles of functioning cause distress to the individual concerned. Think about your response to what you consider to be ‘normal’ alcohol consumption. Perhaps you specified a maximum number of units per day or week? If so, why did you do this? Is it because of the health problems associated with excessive drinking, or because of its association with antisocial behaviour? Some of you may believe t
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Introduction

Dyslexia is a condition affecting literacy skills. This unit analyses how our image of normality affects the way we as a society define such conditions. You will learn how important it is to integrate the different psychological accounts of dyslexia in order to provide a full explanation of potential causes and strategies for remediation.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University courseAuthor(s): The Open University

1 Lights – can DV illuminate teaching?

TV, mobiles, gaming consoles – students interact with digital media every day. Indeed, inbuilt digital cameras on mobiles have become increasingly popular with a generation that demands the freedom to interact with digital imagery any time, anywhere. If this need can be harnessed, digital media has an important and powerful role to play in education.

Do you want to engage students in a lesson that will encourage the development skills listed below:


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Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes for this unit are:

  • Develop an appreciation of the impact digital video has on learning and teaching;

  • Assess what hardware and software you need to deploy DV in your classroom;

  • Become familiar with filming and editing techniques;

  • Plan and deliver a project that uses DV as a teaching tool.


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3 Sharing information

If all governors are not involved in monitoring there must be procedures through which all are kept informed.

Creese and Earley (1999).

Governors need to know and understand the school from the point of view of its performance and development priorities, but it would be unrealistic to expect all governors to be intimately familiar with all aspects of the school.

Thus, the governing body n
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3 What does the data tell us?

Data never gives you the answers: it helps you to ask the questions.

(Hawker, 1998)

Much of the information that governors receive is in the form of statistics: comparative data based on overall school performance in relation to all schools nationally, and also to similar schools. Inexperienced governors may find it hard to understand the data without assistance from the professionals, either i
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5 Further resources

School governance: making it better (OFSTED 2001) (Downloadable as a pdf file from OFSTED's website)

Sallis, J. (2000) ‘Real involvement in decisions, Basics for School Governors, Trowbridge, Wiltshire, Redwood Books, Chapter 5.

Click on 'View document' to read 'Real involvement in decisions' taken from J Sallis Basics for school governors

2 Working with the headteacher

Occasionally, tensions between the headteacher and the governors had been an obstacle to improving the school…

(OFSTED (2001), Making it Better; Improving School Governance)

Headteachers are expected to be highly-qualified, consummate professionals. From 1 April 2004, no teacher will be able to apply for a headship without having been accepted to train for the National Professional Qualificat
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Introduction

How does the board of governors of a school work? This unit looks at the roles of Chair of Governors, Vice-chair and Clerk to the board and examines how the workload can be shared between the members. The governing body should focus on the quality and delivery of education provided by the school, not on daily management.


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5.6.1 Accessible mobile technology

ETO Engineering, ‘Accessible cell phones’

Nuance TALKS: speech output for mobile phones


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5.2.1 Technical and usable accessibility

An online resource needs to be usable for disabled users as well as accessible. Lawton Henry (2002) makes the distinction between ‘technical accessibility’ and ‘usable accessibility’. We will illustrate this distinction with two examples.

  1. In a web-based example, a blind user listening to a screen reader may technically be able to access the data presented in a table, i.e. the screen reader may be able to read the content of each cell in
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5.1 Design decisions

In this activity, we examine in more detail the design decisions that affect accessibility for different groups of disabled students. The activity will help you to create accessible resources, or can be used as a basis to inform your discussions with those who create such resources on your behalf.

We introduce the process of including accessibility considerations in the specification of online learning resources, including 10 principles for accessibility that can be included in a specif
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4.4.6 Do – seek additional funding for expensive adjustments

If a reasonable adjustment requires extra resources, such as using more expensive but accessible software, course providers should ask whether their institutions receive government funding for disabled students and bid for extra resources.


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4.4.2 Do – identify challenging activities

There are two types of learning barrier for disabled students.

  1. Challenges inherent in the learning objectives, such as the challenges that face deaf students who wish to study modern languages.

  2. Challenges posed by the teaching method, such as those that face deaf students when using audioconferencing.

You don't have to be an expert in disability to recognise that:

  • someone with
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3.10.3 Use of computers by people with other disabilities

People with other disabilities/conditions may have difficulties with using computers or other devices. Some examples are listed below.

  • People who have brain damage may have poor concentration or loss of short term memory. This may make it difficult for them to complete activities in a single session or to remember keystrokes or sequences of actions.

  • Mental health issues may result in lack of concentration or engagement.


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3.3.3 Screen readers and speech synthesisers

A screen reader monitors the information sent from the computer to the screen. It makes decisions about which part of the screen to read and in what order, then passes this information to either a speech synthesiser or a Braille display. All screen readers support speech synthesisers and most support Braille displays.

The first speech synthesisers were hardware, usually a small box that sat on the desktop and had its own speaker, or a card that fitted inside the computer and used extern
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