Pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 8994 result(s) returned

2.5 Using stars to probe the interstellar medium

The effects of interstellar material on starlight can be used to probe the properties of the interstellar medium itself. A few examples are:

  • The presence of particular interstellar atoms or molecules may be determined by identifying the observed spectral lines or bands.

  • The temperature of the gas may be determined from the relative strengths of different lines or bands produced by different energy state changes of the same atom or mol
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

2.2 Interstellar space is not empty

The difference between the apparent brightness of a star (as measured by its apparent magnitude), and its luminosity (represented by its absolute magnitude) is defined by the distance of the star. We can explicitly state this relationship as in Equations B and C:

Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

1.3 How can we explain the distribution of stars on the H–R diagram?

Here is a possible explanation for the concentration of stars into certain regions on the H–R diagram. It is based on the reasonable assumptions that:

  • Any particular star is luminous for only a finite time;

  • There are distinct stages between the star's cradle and grave, each stage being characterized by some range of temperature and luminosity; the star thus moves around the H–R diagram as it evolves;

  • The stars we
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • describe and comment on the main features of a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of stars in general, and of stars in a cluster;

  • outline a broad model of stellar evolution based on the observed properties of large numbers of stars, and describe how stars of different initial mass might evolve;

  • describe the effects of interstellar material on starlight, and outline some of the processes by which such material
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Introduction

We can study the individual properties of individual stars, such as photospheric temperature, luminosity, radius, composition and mass. If we wish to understand more about stars and obtain some insight into their evolution, we need to look at the overall distribution of stellar properties. We would like to know the answers to such questions as ‘Can stars have any combination of these properties?’ and ‘How many stars are there of each type?’ We can potentially learn a lot more about th
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Tables

Table 6 Williams et al. (2001) 'Seasonal variation in
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

7 Conclusion

In this unit we have studied animals in the context of their own habitat rather than using the traditional comparative physiology approach of comparing organ systems in different species. Although we have looked at extreme habitats, specifically deserts, it has become clear that, for many species, extreme physiological adaptations are not present and that even endotherms, birds and mammals rely on behavioural strategies, thereby reducing the need for physiological strategies that are costly i
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

6 Phylogeny and cladistic analysis

In Section 3.3 the point was made that many physiologists consider that desert birds are successful because of their avian physiology, not because of any specific adaptations. While Williams and Tieleman's research on hoopoe larks demonstrated that desert species are capable of flexibility in metabolic rate and evaporative water loss, it suggested that adaptation is important too. The selective advantages of lowered BMR and TEWL for desert birds include reduced energy demand, and lower produc
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

5 Integrating across species

Populations of related species occupy similar niches in different environments. A big question for environmental physiologists is whether differences in biochemistry and physiology between related species living in different environments derive from physiological acclimatisation (sometimes referred to as phenotypic flexibility), phenotypic plasticity or evolutionary adaptation.

Recall from Section 3.3 how hoopoe larks, wild-captured from the Arabian desert and kept at T a
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

3.5 Summary of Section 3

Behavioural mechanisms for reducing water loss are integrated with physiology. While Dipodomys rests in a cool burrow, the nasal counter-current heat exchanger cools exhaled air, conserving water vapour evaporated from respiratory surfaces. Long loops of Henle operate as counter-current multipliers, producing highly concentrated urine. Desert foxes use panting for evaporative cooling, but high rates of evaporative water loss cannot be sustained; hence the crucial importance of dens for
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

3.3 Integration of anatomical features and biochemical and physiological strategies in evaporators

Birds and larger desert mammals that use evaporative cooling risk dehydration because of the difficulty of finding sufficient drinking water. For mammals, evaporative heat loss includes panting and sweating.

In small mammals and birds the temperature of exhaled air is often lower than T b, resulting in condensation of water on the nasal mucosa. Small desert mammals rely on this mechanism for water conservation, while resting in their cool burrows during the heat of the
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

3.2 Integration of anatomy and behaviour with biochemical and physiological strategies in evaders

We know from Section 2.3 that small desert rodents remain cool by staying in their burrows for all or part of the day. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.; see Figure 20 in Section 2.3) depend on metabolic water as there is little or no water available in their diet of seeds. Kangaroo rats appear to be ill-adapted for
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

2.5.1 Summary of Section 2

Desert animals are classified in terms of their body size and physiology into three groups: evaders, evaporators and endurers. The logic for this classification is that the smaller the animal, the larger its surface area to volume ratio. Small animals therefore gain and lose heat faster than large animals, warming rapidly when exposed to intense solar radiation, and cooling rapidly at night. Small endothermic evaders, e.g. kangaroo rats, rest in cool microenvironments, e.g. shade or burrows,
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

2.1 Introduction

The unique climate and topography of each desert links to the unique and characteristic flora and fauna found there. From the brief description of deserts provided in Section 1, you can appreciate that a desert provides a variety of niches for animals and plants. The term ‘niche’ applied to animals describes its role in a particular environment, and includes a number of characteristics such as habitat range, how the animal feeds, its diet, its environmental requirements and also its preda
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

6.6.2 Hibernation-induction trigger

Researchers have devoted much effort to the search for a possible blood-borne chemical messenger that might communicate a signal within the brain and to other body tissues, causing entry to hibernation. Serum from hibernating animals such as the woodchuck (Marmota monax; Figure 8), when injected into active animals, can induce torpor. Partly purified serum extracts are also able to induce hibernation-like behavioural changes in a variety of mammalian species. Chemical analysis of the s
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

6.5 The neurotransmitters histamine and serotonin: a role for chemical signalling between neurons of

As in all other regions of the brain, the integration of physiological change in the hypothalamus, conducted by the dialogue between many thousands of nerve cells, is the result of transmissions across chemical synapses. The functions of the hypothalamus are therefore dependent upon neurotransmission by a number of different chemical mediators and are critically dependent on the balance between their respective activities. Monoamine neurotransmitters (histamine and serotonin) operate in subgr
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

6.4 Rapid-response genes and rhythmic neuronal activity

Reactive changes in the brain are usually marked by changes in neuronal electrical activity. If these changes are to be of long duration, adjustments in neuronal electrical behaviour may be made through changes in gene expression. Rapid-response genes (sometimes called ‘immediate-early’ genes) are activated within minutes of the onset of such sustained electrical activity. These genes are master controls, acting as a gateway to a series of linked events: alteration of electrical firing pa
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

6.2 The hypothalamus as central regulator

Research in the past 30–40 years has established that the hypothalamus, which lies below the thalamus and above the optic nerve chiasma and the pituitary gland in the brain, fulfils all of the functions listed above, at least in part. The main function of the hypothalamus is homeostasis. Factors such as blood pressure, body temperature, fluid and electrolyte balance, and body weight are held to constant values called the set-points. Although set-points can vary over time, from day to
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Text

Figures


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450