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4.2 The effects of irrelevant speech

Imagine watching a computer screen, on which a series of digits is flashed, at a nice easy rate of one per second. After six items you have to report what the digits had been, in the order presented (this is called serial recall). Not a very difficult task, you might think, but what if someone were talking nearby? It turns out that, even when participants are instructed to ignore the speech completely, their recall performance drops by at least 30 per cent (Jones, 1999).

In the context
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • understand the different interpretations of internationally recognised notions of rights and justice;

  • give examples of implementing justice in an international sphere;

  • investigate questions in international studies;

  • analyse the different agencies of change in the international system.


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1.1 Thoughts on a PhD

Entering students often think of a PhD as a ‘magnum opus’, a brilliant research project culminating in a great work. This is rather a demanding model, and few students win Nobel Prizes as a result of their doctoral studies. More realistically, a PhD is research training leading to a research qualification. The PhD is a passport to a research career.

There are other views of a PhD, as well. Getting a PhD can be a ‘rite of passage’, prerequisite to admission into the academic ‘t
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Shadows: ( An Interactive Game)
In this game, students drag a cameraman's equipment to make the smallest shadows possible.  ( This link is for an interactive game and may take a few minutes to load.)
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5.4 Unified models

You are now familiar with the main components for building models of AGNs: a central engine powered by an accreting supermassive black hole (with or without jets), clouds of dust, clouds of gas and accretion processes that can organise the gas and dust into a torus-shaped structure. Many attempts have been made to use these components to explain the different types of AGN. Two basic ideas - or perhaps hopes - underlie these models.

First, all AGNs are essentially the same and differ chi
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7.340 Immune Evasion: How Sneaky Pathogens Avoid Host Surveillance (MIT)
Every infection consists of a battle between the invading pathogen and the resisting host. To be successful, a pathogen must escape the many defenses of the host immune system until it can replicate and spread to another host. A pathogen must prevent one of three stages of immune function: detection, activation, or effector function. Examples of disease-specific immune evasion and the mechanisms used by pathogens to prevail over their hosts' immune systems are discussed. Also considered is what
Author(s): Halme, Dina Gould

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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative C

1.9.2 To sum up

Such an analysis reinforces the notion of discourse as a form of work or labour. It also implies a strategic speaker. But, again, is this the case? Are speakers strategic in this way or just doing what comes naturally? It can suggest, too, a duplicity in Diana's actions. Potter is not implying this, however. Rather, as knowledgeable speakers and competent members of discursive communities, we are all, like Diana, skilled in a range of methods for accomplishing different activities such as sta
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The Coming of the American Revolution, 1764-1776
By investigating the lives and events recorded in newspapers, official documents and personal correspondence from the collection of the Massachusetts History Society, you will immerse yourself in the past and discover the fears, friction and turmoil that shaped the tumultuous times from 1774 through 1776.  Specifically, the website will 1) provide an easily understood chronology of key events leading up to the war; 2) present crucial documents relating to those events; 3) offer co
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4.2 Index

It is not practical for the search engine to go looking at every page on the Web whenever it receives a search request. Instead, the search engine consults a vast index to the Web. This index is prepared in advance and is stored as a database to make retrieval as efficient as possible. The index of a search site is just like the index of a book – it contains a list of words, each with a reference to the page on which that word was found. The reference to the original page is, of course, a U
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8.1 Overview

Following the Scottish Parliament elections in May 2007, the balance of power and system of government in Scotland has changed significantly, giving rise to Scotland's first minority government, led by the Scottish National Party.

The first three units in this section consider issues of nationalism, political devolution and the role of nation-regions in the European Union. The final two units consider social issues such as geographical identity and poverty in Scotland.

 


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2.3 Truth values

We will want to distinguish between statements that are true and statements that are false. Another fundamental form of data allows us to do this. This form of data consists of just two values, which we shall write as true and false.

Not all texts use the same notation: some use T and F; others may use 0 for false and 1 for true (or the reverse!).

We may refer to true and false as truth values, or Boolean values
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Introduction

This unit provides basic historical background to the French Revolution. It will show that the Revolution accelerated intellectual, cultural and psychological change, and opened up new horizons and possibilities. In fact, while much controversy and scepticism remain as to the real extent of underlying change in the social and economic structure of France, it is generally agreed by scholars that the Revolution stimulated a widening of expectations and imaginative awareness: a belief, inherited
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Learning to learn: Planning for personal change
This free course, Learning to learn: Planning for personal change, explores academic theories and acts as a guide to help you establish where you want to go and what you want to achieve. You are encouraged to develop a personal Action Plan. The focus returns to your own viewpoint and you are encouraged to change or modify how you think about using Learning to learn. The course also looks at how online learning communities can be used as part of the process of learning and personal change. PLEAS
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

1.2.2 Chemical contraceptives

These methods rely to a large extent on an understanding of the physiology of the reproductive process. They are targeted at preventing the production or release of gametes, i.e. the sex cells – sperm and eggs – which need to fuse to produce a new individual. To date, most effort in this area has been directed towards preventing a woman from ovulating, i.e. releasing an egg, although more recently trials have begun on ‘male pills’ which block sperm production.

Ovulation i
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Columns: Experimenting with Paper Cups
Columns, vertical structural elements that are strong in compression, are good at propping things up. In this video segment adapted from ZOOM, the cast uses paper cups to illustrate what makes columns strong and why they sometimes collapse. By filling the cups with sand, they also show that even hollow columns of a weak material like paper can be made surprisingly strong. Closed captioning included.  Run time 03:03.
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • explain why modelling plays a key role in eliciting requirements

  • identify the different kinds of model used in eliciting requirements

  • explain the need for modelling languages

  • interpret a data flow diagram describing a simple process

  • interpret a use case diagram describing a system's response to a business event.


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1.1.1 When do we use key skills?

Key skills underpin almost everything we do. In the following table, there are some examples of when we use key skills as part of our studies or in other areas of our lives. As you read through the list, think about how confident you are in each of the key skills.

Click here  for a printable version of Table 1 that you can fill in.
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1.7 Babylonian mathematical style

Not only should you have learnt through this exercise more about the Babylonian mathematical style, but also, on another level, you should have gained more experience in the endeavour of trying to understand past mathematics. The model that we have been trying out can be characterised thus: use any means, any symbolism or notation that occurs to you, to find your way into the problem, then check rigorously to see how much of your new understanding is more a projection backwards from your own
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2 How should we think of monotremes?

This section contains the first of the activities, Activity 1. If possible, you should do each activity as you come to it; the text that follows
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5.4 Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is diabetes that develops during pregnancy. There are no internationally agreed threshold blood glucose levels used to diagnose gestational diabetes. However, there is a trend towards using the IGT (impaired glucose tolerance) test criteria (see Section 4). Studies are ongoing to decide what threshold level is important i
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