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5.1.6 Languages and Law

Your course will recommend appropriate dictionaries, grammars and reference books.


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5.1.4 History

There is no general dictionary or companion to the study of history as such. However, there are period and subject-specific companions and indexes, such as:

Jones, C. (1990) The Longman Companion to the French Revolution, London, Longman.

Consult those appropriate to your course.


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5.1.2 Classical Studies

Hornblower, S. and Spawforth, A. (eds) (1997, 3rd edn) The Oxford Classical Dictionary, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Howatson, M.C. and Chilvers, I. (eds) (1993) The Concise Oxford Companion to Classical Literature, Oxford, Oxford University Press.


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3.7 Writing clearly

A final point that emerged from our analysis of Philip's and Hansa's essays was that a good essay is easy to read. Grand-sounding phrases and elaborate sentences do not make an essay impressive. Clarity and economy are what count. Such ease of reading is achieved at several levels.


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2.6 How good are Philip's and Hansa's essays?

There are no absolute standards against which the quality of an essay can be judged. It depends on the course you are studying – its content and aims, and the level at which it is pitched. Your tutor will tell you how your essays stand within the context of your course. What we can do is outline the strengths and weaknesses of Philip's and Hansa's essays. In the second question of Author(s): The Open University

2.5.4. Choosing the right words and phrases

Both Philip and Hansa occasionally use words and phrases that don't really do the job they want. We saw, for instance, that Philip uses the word ‘resemblance’ when actually he means ‘contrast’. Here are some other examples from his writing.

Philip's words More accurate words
Paragraph 1
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3.2 Consciousness of the body

Phenomenological theorists distinguish between the subjective body (as lived and experienced) and the objective body (as observed and scientifically investigated). These are not two different bodies as such (phenomenologists pride themselves on overcoming dualisms!); rather they are different facets of our experience and consciousness.

The body-subject, or subjective body, is the body-as-it-is-lived. I do not simply possess a body; I am my body (Merleau-Ponty, 1962
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3 Phenomenological accounts

In this section of the course, you will look at how phenomenologists focus on the idea of a ‘lived experience’. You will then go on to look at this in relation to multiple sclerosis (MS).


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1 Embodiment

Behind your thoughts and feelings, my brother, stands a mighty commander, an unknown sage – he is called Self. He lives in your body, he is your body.

(Nietzsche, 1961 [1883], p. 62)

At first glance you might be curious about why we're including a course on bodies, or rather embodiment – the process or state of living in a body – in relati
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1.5 Defining dyslexia

The ongoing debate about dyslexia is reflected in the different approaches that have been taken to formally define it. Clearly this impacts on how dyslexia is defined in practice. The next three sections summarise how definitions of dyslexia have changed as our knowledge has increased. In short, there have been three main approaches to defining dyslexia: definition by exclusion, discrepancy definitions and the identification of positive indicators.


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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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Acknowledgements

This course was originally prepared for TeachandLearn.net by Dr Kate Daubney, Visiting Research Fellow in Film Music Studies at the University of Leeds. She has taught film music to students from musical and non-musical backgrounds, and her research interests include comparative analysis of film music as written and aural texts.

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2 Citizenship in the English National Curriculum

Key stage 3 of the Citizenship National Curriculum document requires pupils to – among other things – understand the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society, and to appreciate the economic implications of the world as a global community, and the role of the European Union and the United Nations in fostering this.

In addition, the same document charges Key stage 4 citizenship teaching to deal with how the economy functions (including the role of business and
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1 Language as knowledge, language as educational medium

In a course like this, in which we are concerned with the teaching and learning of a language, we have the difficult task of simultaneously maintaining two conceptions of ‘language’. The first is as the subject matter of teaching and learning: the nature of the language which is being taught, the ways in which this language is defined by the curriculum of schools, and the ways it is used in the world which learners in teachers of English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) classes are
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6.2 Shaping knowledge

It seems inevitable that any understandings we have will have been shaped and influenced by other (past and present) members of the same culture(s) we belong to. Most of these influences ‘just happen’: they arise out of our experiences as part of a culture whose members have had their experiences and shared them over many centuries. However, knowledge can also be deliberately influenced by powerful elements within a society: as we saw in Section 5.3, the church suppressed Galileo's reason
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1 The rise of assistants

Described image
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2 Languages and the work environment

This section aims to work further on investigating career possibilities open to people with knowledge of modern languages.

These are headlines of news stories that stress the importance of language.

  • ‘Japanese pharma giant chooses UK for European hub.’ Esai – Japan's fourth largest pharmaceutical company – has chosen Hertfordshire as the home of their pioneering European base.

  • ‘Companies to prioritise international markets
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce materia
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2.7.4 Identities are contextual and interactional

Different identities assume greater or less importance, and play different roles, in different contexts and settings, and in interactions with different people. Different aspects of people’s identity may come to the fore in the workplace and in the home, for example, while people might emphasise different aspects of themselves to different people (and different people may see different identities when they meet them).


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