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4.4 Fibre in the access network

In the 1980s there was a belief that it was only a matter of time before fibre would be installed in the access network (from individual private customers to the local telephone exchange, also called ‘the last mile’, the ‘local loop’ and, now, the ‘first mile’). Installing ‘fibre to the home’, FTTH, as this has come to be known, was always recognised to be a major undertaking, simply because of the number of links involved. If, however, the revenue from new services enabled by
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4.3 Optical networking

DWDM improves the utilisation of optical fibre for point-to-point links, but a further step in exploiting the potential of optical fibre comes from optical networking in which routeing or switching is done optically.

Optical networking is in its infancy, but the concept of the optical layer based upon wavelength channels is emerging. The optical layer effectively sits below the SDH layer in the network, and provides wavelength channels from one location to another.

An analogy can
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3.5 Wavelength multiplexing and demultiplexing

Wavelength multiplexers and demultiplexers are needed in order to be able to use wavelength division multiplexing. With just two wavelengths, the multiplexers and demultiplexers can be based on directional couplers because, as mentioned earlier in Section 3.2, couplers are naturally wavelength-d
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1.1 Uses of optical fibre in communication

Using optical fibres, very high data rates (gigabits per second and higher) can be transmitted over long distances (tens of kilometres) without amplifiers or regenerators. As a consequence, optical fibre has completely superseded copper wires as the primary medium for cabled transmission over long distances. Until recently, however, optical fibre has been used less in LANs, where twisted-pair copper cable has been dominant. Similarly, fibre has been slow to penetrate the access network, from
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5.12 Interests

There is quite a lot to be said about the play, but in this course I need to be selective. In the conversations that take place, one of the things that happens is that all sorts of interests unfold. There is a catalogue of benefits that could each potentially accrue to a long list of individuals and groups. We have the government that could gain benefits through ownership which would allow it to develop the device, understand threats, prevent development, protect the indigenous industry and r
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5.8 Rights

At the beginning of Act 2, Ned is quite explicit about not wanting to bargain over money. It is very clear he is bargaining over his right to control who uses what he sees as his technology, and his rights, he believes, will enable him to keep his weapon out of the hands of administrations that he does not really trust. So, at the centre of all this are the rights that appear to provide the means for Ned to control the distribution of devices embodying his idea, and that will allow him to pre
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5.2 The characters

Activity 18

Read Act 1 of Landscape with Weapon and jot down some observations on the characters.

Discussion

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2.2 Three Greek dialogues

Activity 8

Read the excerpts of Plato's Protagoras highlighted in the version attached below. Jot down a few ideas about the final vocabulary that Socrates uses in the dialogue.

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References

Berry, W. L., Hill, T. and Klompmaker, J. E. (1999) ‘Aligning marketing and manufacturing strategies with the market’, International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 37, No. 16, pp. 3599–618.
The Chartered Institute of Marketing, Marketing Glossary<
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References

Collins, S., Ghey, J. and Mills, G. (1989) The Professional Engineer in Society, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Foster, J., with Corby, L. (illustrator) (1996) How to Get Ideas, San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.
Haaland, J., Wingert, J. and Olson, B. A. (1963) 'Force required to activate switches, maximum finger pushing force, and coefficient
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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7.3 Ethics and safety

A practising engineer makes ethical decisions, with moral and physical implications of varying magnitudes, on a daily basis. Examples of ethical dilemmas are limitless, ranging from the engineer who takes home the odd pen, file or discarded paper 'for the children', to the engineer who signs off a project without checking the details and identifying a simple arithmetic error of magnitude. The implications of either may be negligible – such as where the cost is more than compensated in unpai
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7.2 The professional engineer

It has been suggested that there are four main criteria that identify a profession:

Custody of a clearly definable and valuable body of knowledge and understanding associated with a long period of training.

A strong unitary organization which ensures that the profession generally speaks with 'one voice'.

Clearly defined and rigorous entry standards, backed up by a requirement to register with the profession
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4.7 Build prototype/demonstrator

The physical models we talked about earlier are prototypes or demonstrators of a sort. However, for the purposes of making a clear distinction in the process, I'm referring here to prototypes or demonstrators as functioning preliminary models of the essential finished product or construction or service, bringing together all the elements of the design that may or may not have been previously physically tested (Author(s): The Open University

4.5.2 Physical models

A physical model of an artefact or component is often built on a reduced scale, in size and/or by using materials that are cheaper and easier to manipulate than those intended for production. At this stage, we are not necessarily producing what you might think of as a prototype, but investigating particular aspects of the design. For instance, maybe we would produce a racing-bike frame to a new design but in a cheap material such as balsawood, in order to assess the air flow around it in a wi
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1.1 Solving problems

It could be said that our species is defined by its irresistible urge to solve problems – it's what makes us human. Strange, then, that the word 'problem' has such negative overtones. I think that the root of this paradox is that the word is used both when we identify a need – the first link in the problem-solving chain – and when we undertake the process of meeting that need. It is the identification of the need and the realisation that it is real and must be met that creates the anxie
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2 Conclusion

The Forth Road Bridge, connecting Edinburgh with Fife, continues to face a number of problems regarding its deteriorating condition. Both structural issues and the increasing wear and tear of the traffic upon the bridge are causes of concern for the engineers who maintain it.


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5.12 Vibrating air column: pitches of notes produced by wind instruments

In a wind instrument, the air column is the primary vibrator. To excite the air column, a musician either blows across it (e.g. flute) or blows down it via a mouthpiece (e.g. trumpet) or reed (e.g. oboe). This supplies energy, which starts the air column vibrating. The air column isn't just forced to vibrate in one single mode; as with the string, it vibrates in a combination of several modes.

To a good approximation, the air column of a flute is cylindrical with two open ends and, as a
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1 Aims of Creating musical sounds

The aims of this unit are to:

  • introduce the idea that a musical instrument is made up of several component parts and that each component has natural frequencies at which it prefers to vibrate;

  • introduce the concept of standing waves and explain how a standing wave is made up of two travelling waves;

  • show that a component prefers to vibrate at its natural frequencies because these are the frequencies at which standing waves
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5.14.1 Multistage flash distillation

In this process (Figure 34) saline water (screened first, if it is sea water) is distilled under reduced pressure in a series of sealed tanks. Due to the reduced pressure, the water evaporates suddenly or 'flashes' at a temperature lower than 100°C, typically 80°C. Pure water condenses on cooling coils in the tanks and is collected. As the temperature of the feed water falls in each succeeding tank (as the latent heat of evaporation is extracted from it) a correspondingly lower pressure has
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