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What children's perspectives tell us about inclusion
The underlying premise of this free course, What children's perspectives tell us about inclusion, is that we are all experts in different ways, and that our different experiences and understandings are of value. Inclusive education is presented and discussed as under construction, both in educational settings and as a concept. The materials to be found in this course are largely rooted in the social model of disability and human/disability rights frameworks. Author(s): Creator not set

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Assessment in secondary geography
This free course, Assessment in secondary geography, will identify and explore some of the key issues around assessing geography in secondary schools. Through coming to understand these issues and debates, you will reflect on and develop your assessment practice as a geography teacher and develop a greater awareness of the implications of assessment practice on pedagogy and what is considered to be of value in geography education. Author(s): Creator not set

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Exploring equality and equity in education
This free course, Exploring equality and equity in education, considers the complexity of social justice as applied to education and reflects on the different purposes of, and value ascribed to, education in different countries and cultures. It discusses different conceptions of 'justice' and the distinction between equity and equality. First published o
Author(s): Creator not set

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Working with young people in sport and exercise
This free course, Working with young people in sport and exercise, examines the special considerations of coaching or instructing young people in sport and exercise. The physiological differences between children and adults will be considered along with the practical implications of coaching young people. First published on Tu
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4.3.2 Read through to check your answers

When the end of the exam finally approaches, use the last few minutes to check you have numbered all the questions, crossed out rough work that you do not want the examiner to mark, and filled in all the details required on the front sheet.

If you have time before these last few minutes, you may like to reread the answers, tidying up some words, making the meaning a little clearer or rewriting the occasional word that is very hard to read. If you decide to add brief comments, use a numb
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3.11.2 Answering a question in exam conditions

Write out a few exam questions on pieces of card, shuffle them and then pick out a question at random and try to answer it in the time the exam allows. Doing this can give you a sense of the amount you can reasonably write in an exam. You should also get an idea of whether or not you are being too ambitious about what you can cover within the time constraints of an exam. You should be wary of overshooting the timeslot for an exam answer, and not leaving enough time to complete the remaining a
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6.2 Specific difficulties

Some students contend with physical difficulties in reading. Here is one:

And here is another being offered advice by a friend:

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5.1 Critical questions

As well as making sense of what you read, you have to think about whether or not you are convinced by the arguments being presented. At degree level, you don't simply accept what you read – you read ‘critically’, weighing up the strengths and weaknesses of the case the author makes. This means asking another set of questions, such as the ones discussed here.


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2.1.2 Dictionaries

One way to tackle the challenge of unfamiliar words is to use a dictionary. You could use a traditional printed dictionary, or an online dictionary, or both. A printed dictionary is easy to keep beside you wherever you happen to be reading. But an online dictionary holds the advantage when it comes looking up words quickly as you can look up a word in three or four online dictionaries simultaneously, to compare the definitions they offer.

You also have a choice between using a genera
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Further reading

de Bono's Thinking Course by Edward de Bono, published by BBC Books, 1999; An interesting general consideration of thinking skills with tools and techniques for developing thinking in a general way.
Use Your Head by Tony Buzan, published by BBC Books, 1995; Lots of useful information on how to make the most of your brainpower.
The Mindmap Book by Tony Buza
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6.1.2 Essay planning

Carefully read the following short essay. Try to identify its strengths and weaknesses in terms of planning. Take your time, but don't think you need to be familiar with the content, you are trying to find what provides the writing's framework.

Then try to answer the questions that follow in Activity 13.

There ar
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8.2 Formulating a question

When you make your own enquiries you draw on your existing knowledge of a discipline or subject area and decide on a specific question to explore; a question that is relevant to some aspect of the subject and which interests you. That means you must have some understanding of what the important questions and issues are in your subject area, and why they are important. In other words, you must have acquired appropriate ‘frameworks for thinking’ within it. That background ensures tha
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1.3 Studying the arts and humanities

Having seen why and how distinctions are made between different arts and humanities subjects, does that mean we cannot think of these subjects ‘as a whole’? The general label ‘arts and humanities’ suggests that there is something that unites them, at the same time distinguishing them from other subject groupings (such as ‘the sciences’ or ‘social sciences’). What unites these subjects is that they focus on:

  • cultural ‘traditions’
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4.1.3 How do I draw a line graph?

The process is as the steps below outline.

  1. Collect the data.

    In other words, decide on the data that you wish to represent and collect it in a format that shows one value being compared with another.

  2. Decide on a clear title.

    You may be able to use the heading of a table from which you are getting data. Alternatively, you may need to define the title yourself.

  3. Decide on the values that you wish to show on
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4.3.1 Pie charts

A pie chart is a diagram in the form of a circle, with proportions of the circle clearly marked. A pie chart is a good method of representation if we wish to compare a part of a group with the whole group. It gives an immediate idea of the relative sizes of the shares. So, for example, it can be used to consider advertising income. It can also be used to look at, say, shares of market for different brands, or different types of sandwiches sold by a store.

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4.3 Pie charts, bar charts, histograms and line graphs

These are all different ways of representing data and you are likely to be familiar with some, if not all of them. They usually provide a quick summary that gives you a visual image of the data being presented. Below, we have given a brief definition and some ideas of how each can be used, along with a corresponding activity. We suggest that you look out for similar examples in everyday life, and question the information that you see.


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References

Lewis, G. and Phoenix, A. (2004) ‘Race ‘ethnicity’ and identity’ in Questioning Identity, K. Woodward (ed.), London, Routledge/The Open University.
The Runnymede Bulletin (1999) ‘Black deaths in police custody’, no.319, September, pp.8–9.
Sardar, Z., Ravetz, J. and Van Loon, B. (1999) Introducing Mathematics, Cambridge, Icon Books.

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1.2.7 Summary

  • What we must do to understand numbers as they are used as evidence in social science is to practise and so become familiar with them, and to understand the conventions which determine how they are used.

  • Sets of numerical data can be presented in many ways, as tables, bar charts, pie charts or line graphs. These are just different ways of trying to represent or make a picture of numbers. Which is used is largely a matter of which best shows
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8.2 Writing in your own words

Active reading, or reading and thinking, are bound up with writing in your own words. If you read materials in a passive way, you are much more likely to copy out chunks word for word when you are note taking, and in the process generate very long notes indeed! Similarly, if you do not spend time thinking about what you have read, asking questions and checking your understanding, you will be tempted to copy out difficult bits or simply try to reorder the author's words. In the latter case you
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • recognise some of the skills which are particularly associated with the way social scientists work

  • describe some basic techniques relating to reading, for example, highlighting, note-taking and the processing

  • write in your own words using references and quoting sources.


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