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3.2.1 Formal publication

The first formal, peer-reviewed, publication of part of Pusztai's work came in the Lancet in October 1999. Pusztai and his co-author Stanley Ewen had developed the work to include measurements on the effect of GNA potatoes on the structure of the rat intestine. They were looking for any effect of the GM diet on the mucosal cell layer lining the gut. Any increase in thickness would indicate that the diet had prompted increased growth of these layers, seen as a deleterious effect. In the
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Social issues and GM crops
The genetic manipulation of plants and animals and their use in agriculture is one of the most controversial scientific developments of recent times. This free course, Social issues and GM crops, takes a look at the science behind the headlines and the complex interactions between scientific and social factors. By the end of the course it's hoped that you will have a clearer idea not only of what is possible with GM but what may be considered desirable. Author(s): Creator not set

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2.12 Fluid balance

Although a person can survive for several weeks without food, without fluids, someone can survive for only a few days. A loss of water equivalent to just 1% of body weight is enough to make someone feel thirsty and to have an effect on ability to concentrate. Such a loss has been shown in some studies in schools to result in a 10% decrease in the mental performance of children. A 4% loss results in dizziness and reduced muscle power. By the time there is a 6% loss, the heart is racing and swe
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2.4.2 Magnesium (Mg)

Magnesium is also present in bone in the body and in the soft tissues, although in much lower quantities than calcium. It is important in the activity of more than 300 enzyme systems, in particular those using ATP. It is involved in the synthesis of proteins and in many other reactions in the body. In plants, magnesium is part of the chlorophyll molecule, so it is present in green vegetables and is found widely elsewhere in the diet, so intake is normally adequate. In some areas, there are lo
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand something of the role of a genetic counsellor and its non-directiveness

  • understand the difference between pre-natal diagnosis, childhood testing and adult testing and give some examples of diseases that may be tested for

  • understand the ethical and moral difficulties involved in making decisions on whether or not to carry out such tests.


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2.9 End of section exercise

Portfolio exercise

After reading Section 2 you could conduct the following exercises as part of your evidence of achievement. You may like to discuss this activity with your supervisor.

  1. Write a reflective account of some of the skills you ident
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1.9 Summary and conclusion: ‘take-away messages’

It helps to understand the PhD in context: the modern PhD is typically a three-year research training providing evidence of the ability to conduct and bring to fruition an independent programme of research. It requires rigour and an ability to enter the discourse, but its scope is limited and it does not require perfection. Models of study and models of dissertations vary for different universities, disciplines, and topics. The key is to understand what is appropriate for your particular prog
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2.1 Why study ecology?

These days, bird watching is a popular leisure activity and in the past so were collecting insects, wild flowers and birds’ eggs (although such activities are not now recommended – indeed, they are often illegal – because of the potential damage they cause to flora and fauna). Some amateurs are or were truly experts in their fields. In fact, much of the original identification of the British flora and fauna was done by amateur naturalists. Many a Victorian vicar or other self-taught nat
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1.3.2 Texture of igneous rocks

What texture might we expect an igneous rock to have? An igneous rock will contain crystals that grew as the magma cooled. Each crystal will have started to grow unhindered by neighbouring crystals, so an igneous rock therefore has a crystalline texture in which the crystals are randomly oriented.

To picture this, consider magma at an initial temperature of perhaps 1000 °C, as it slowly cools underground (see Figure 3, path (a) to (d)). Initially the magma is completely molten (Figure
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3.1.5 (E) Historical development of scientific knowledge

Pupils should be taught some of the historical background to the development of scientific knowledge.


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2.3 What is a ‘business’?

The vast majority of companies are, indeed, set up and run with ‘commercial objects’ – in other words, they are business enterprises, or ‘undertakings’, set up to trade and make a profit. It is principally in the context of the company as a form of business organisation (or ‘business medium’) that we will be studying it. So, before we start to look in detail at what companies are, it is a good idea to have a grasp of what companies do, which will lead us on to consider why they
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2.2 What is a ‘company’?

In Part A, we will start by examining some of the basic concepts which will underpin your understanding of the course. We will begin by examining what you think a company is (you do not need to have previous legal knowledge for this).

Activity 1: What does ‘company’ mean?


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2.1 Key themes and learning outcomes

The key themes of Part A are:

  • company;

  • business;

  • capital.

After studying Part A, you should be able to:

  • describe in general terms what a business is;

  • demonstrate an appreciation of the concept of capital.

 

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1.3 Wider aspects of business and company law

So far, we have touched on just a few of the many aspects of the law which relates to companies and other businesses. It will be useful at this point to consider how these areas fit into some wider issues raised by the study of law in general. For example:

  • The law relating to businesses such as companies and partnerships regulates important areas of daily life, and allows you to see that there is a connection between the law and the way in which people
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • Part A:

  • describe in general terms what a business is

  • demonstrate an appreciation of the concept of capital.

  • Part B:

  • identify the main types of business medium

  • demonstrate an understanding of the key characteristics of businesses run as sole traders

  • determine what are the assets and liabilities of a business using numeracy skil
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Introduction

In this course, we will consider the nature of businesses and the principal forms of business organisation. The themes covered in Part A are company, business and capital; and in Part B, business mediums, sole traders, partnerships or firms, and assets and liabilities.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 1 study in Author(s): The Open University

Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Law. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner. 


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4.2 Effect of the ECHR on English law prior to the Human Rights Act 1998

The Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) received the Royal Assent on 9 November 1998, and the main provisions were brought into effect on 2 October 2000. However, the UK had by then been a signatory to and had ratified the ECHR for nearly fifty years. What was the effect, if any, of the Convention on UK domestic law? We have already noted the supremacy of Parliament as the main law-making body in the UK. Under English law international treaties do not become part of domestic law unless and until some
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4.1 An overview of the UK perspective

You have looked at the international scene regarding human rights but what of the position in England? You may be wondering: ‘If the common law developed over hundreds of years in this country surely the courts must at some stage have been called upon to consider the issue of human rights?’. As you might expect, the answer to this question is in the affirmative.

However, over the centuries the lack of legal instruments on human rights was itself an inhibition on the development of h
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3.8 Summary of Part B

In Part B you learned more about the ECHR and the procedures of the ECtHR and how protocols have been used to ensure that the ECHR remains a living instrument. Part B also explored the new challenges created by the rapid expansion of HCPs at the end of the last century and the proposals for reform of the ECtHR.


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