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2.2 The origins of a rights discourse

In some form, the ideas of ‘rights’ and ‘justice’ could probably be found in all societies and cultures. They are moral concepts because they are concerned with moral ideals; with how things should be rather than describing how things are. However, the notion of rights now has a prominence in political debate in a way it has not had in other times and places. In the political thought of the ancient world, for example, a key question was how individuals could best contrib
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2.1 Background to the idea of international rights

The UN Charter and the Declaration form part of a post-Second World War international settlement which established, on the one side, the formal legitimating ideology of the international system, national self-determination and sovereign equality and, on the other, the ideology of universal human rights. The appeal of this set of claims was the hope that different peoples could live together in peace and security. It was an attempt to accommodate difference (through the idea of national self-d
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Introduction

This course is about rights and rights claims, and the idea of implementing justice in the international sphere based on the concept of rights. It is agreed by most people that ‘rights are a good thing’ and in many respects they are. However, this course deliberately takes a critical view. It seeks to examine closely why rights are a good thing and highlights some of the problems associated with rights. In this way, we hope that the sense in which rights are still, ultimately, ‘a good t
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce materia
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4.2 Shifting ground

In Section 3 and in Section 4 so far, we have begun with the questions of how and why humans found their way to oceanic isl
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Introduction

Free trade or fair trade? This course will help you to analyse the relationship that exists between developed and developing countries under the World Trade Organization regime of Development Round negotiations. The current world trade regime has a very mixed record in promoting growth and reducing poverty.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 3 study in Author(s): The Open University

Business operations
This series of tracks examines the operations management in four service industries. Each has unique problems associated with their sector but they all have operational processes to ensure smooth delivery of their product. Material is taken from The Open University Course T883 Business operations: delivering value. The OpenLearn team.
First published on Fri, 26 M

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Air Pollution
How we can be sure our air is safe to breathe? This album introduces the principles and concepts of air quality management and looks at how we analyse pollution control problems. Five video tracks review the nature and characteristics of air pollution today and demonstrate how air quality data is interpreted. They include a comparison between shipping and car emission levels, the processes used to remove pollutants from the air, and ways in which British Aerospace could limit its Volatile Organ
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3.2 Sub-state forms of nationalism

The advancement of democracy in contemporary Western nation-states and the intensification of globalisation processes have encouraged the re-emergence of nationalist movements representing oppressed or silenced nations that demand the right to self-determination. In the case of ethnic groups formed by people of immigrant origin, democracy has provided them with the tools to pursue the right to develop and practice their indigenous culture and language alongside those of the host country. One
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4.5 Conclusions

  1. There are many different types of projects; all have specific objectives, constraints (such as budgets and schedules) and a group or team responsible for the completion of the project.

  2. Project teams are effective when both task and relationship behaviours are competently handled. The main task-oriented behaviours are:

    • estimating and planning;

    • assembling a team;

    • reporting a
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2.3.5 Mixed structures

Teams often have mixed structures:

  • some members may be employed to work full time on the project and be fully responsible to the project manager. Project managers themselves are usually employed full time.

  • others may work part time, and be responsible to the project manager only during their time on the project. For example, internal staff may well work on several projects at the same time. Alternatively, an external consultant working o
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4.7 The story so far

This section looked at the play Last Call. The play is very rich in ethical issues, and one of the most interesting points that are made is that, whilst there are many ‘big’ ethical questions worthy of discussion and investigation, it seems to be in the everyday, routine conversations and dealings of people that ethical questions get to be asked and answered, even if this is not clearly recognised.

A major ethical issue tackled in the play is loyalty: giving preference in som
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1.7 Ideology

The notions of a final vocabulary and that of ideology are closely related. Anthony Giddens defined ideology as ‘shared ideas or beliefs which serve to justify the interests of dominant groups’ (Giddens, 2006, p. 1020). There are all sorts of problems with this definition. One difficulty, for example, is that ideas and beliefs, if they have any kind of existence, are hidden away and have to be inferred by what people do and say. Another difficulty surrounds exactly how these things can be
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce materia
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Introduction

This unit focuses on the Forth Road Bridge that connects Edinburgh with Fife. This suspension bridge continues to face a number of problems regarding its deteriorating condition. The short video included in this unit illustrates some of the major structural issues facing bridges and examines some of the proposed changes to the use of the Forth Road Bridge to help increase its lifespan.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 1 study in
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • Explain correctly the meaning of the emboldened terms in the main text and use them correctly in context

  • Identify whether a given sound source can be classed as a musical instrument and explain why (Activity 2)

  • Identify the primary vibrator and any secondary vibrators in the most common types of instrument (Activity 3)

  • Appreciate that, when a note is played, a musical in
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References

Porteous, A. (2000) Dictionary of Environmental Science and Technology, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons (T210 Set Book).

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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Technology. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance, and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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6.4 Summary

After passing through a treatment works, water flows via transmission mains to service reservoirs which act to even out variations in consumption during a 24-hour demand period. It is then taken by distribution mains from the service reservoirs to the consumers. The head of water necessary for flow is provided by positioning the service reservoir at the correct level or by pumping. A pumped pipeline is called a rising main. The size of mains pipelines depends on the quantity and flow rate of
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