Acknowledgements

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This extract is taken from D218: Social policy: welfare, power and diversity, produced by the BBC on behalf of the Open University.

© 2007 The Open University.


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1 Developing reading skills

John Clarke and course team member Ross Fergusson, look at developing reading skills in the context of Social Science resources, with suggestions on how to read such materials critically and effectively. The material is primarily an audio file, 11 minutes in length and recorded in 1998.

Participants in the audio programme were:

  • John Clarke Professor of Social Policy at The Open University;

  • Ross Ferguson Social Scie
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able:

  • read Social Science materials critically and effectively.


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Introduction

This unit looks at developing reading skills in the context of using Social Science materials. This material is primarily an audio file, originally 11 minutes in length and recorded in 1988.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Social policy: welfare, power and diversity (D218) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this
Author(s): The Open University

Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions). This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

This extract is taken from D218: Social policy: welfare, power and diversity, produced by the BBC on behalf of the Open University.
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1 How arguments are used in the Social Sciences

The audio programme used in this unit addresses the issue of how arguments are constructed and used in the social sciences. It uses extracts from a radio programme (originally broadcast on BBC Radio 4 in January 1997) in which the social consequences of welfare provision are discussed from different viewpoints. The programme is organised to allow you to trace how arguments are being put together, assess what sort of assumptions are being made, and examine how forms of evidence are being used
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • understand how arguments may be presented in the Social Sciences.


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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

This extract is taken from D315: Crime, order and social control, produced by the BBC on behalf of the Open University.


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5.4.1 Context, scope and information security policy

An ISMS is defined in Clause 3.4 of Part 2 of the Standard as a

management system, based on a business risk approach, to establish, implement, operate, monitor, review, maintain and improve information security.

Some organisations will want to protect all of their information assets. Others, depending on the business risks and other hazards they face, may want to consider an ISMS that prote
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3.2 FTP

The acronym FTP stands for the File Transfer Protocol. It provides the facility whereby files can be downloaded into a computer from another computer in the internet. Although there are a number of utilities for file transfer most users now employ browsers for this via FTP links.

There are a number of utilities which enable you to load anything from clip art to the latest updates for operating systems. Many of these utilities are very primitive: they use a simple command line int
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1 Preamble

The mathematical skills assumed by Open University courses in the Faculty of Mathematics and Computing, Faculty of Science and Faculty of Technology, vary greatly from course to course. Students are strongly recommended to start by reading the Sciences Good Study Guide (ISBN 0 7492 341 1 3) as preparation for whichever course they are going to study. This guide is an excellent place to start but you may have found that the section on maths does not go far enough for you. Equally, y
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8.5 Reviewing

Undoubtedly this is the most difficult phase to apply to revision and an exam or to the preparation and production of an end-of-course assessment. Most of us heave a huge sigh of relief when it is all over and then try to put it out of our minds during the weeks while we wait for the results. When these arrive, it is very difficult to think back to the exam itself or revisit the details of the end-of-course assessment. With very little feedback to help, learning how to learn from exams or the
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2.2 Your motivation

Activity 2

Why did you decide to become a student and what do you hope to gain from your studies?

Think about this question for a few minutes and then note down your response.


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All materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.

1. Join the 200,000 students currently studying with The Open University.


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1.3.2 The development of online learning

Online learning is a relatively new phenomenon but over the last few years many colleges, universities and workplaces have started to use online learning as part of their courses. The UK government-appointed Dearing Committee was set up to consider the future of higher education, and in the Dearing Report, published in 1997, made its recommendations. One of these was that all students should have access to a networked computer by 2000/2001 and their own networked portable computer by 2005/200
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1.3.1 What it means

Most people's experience of learning is in a classroom (of a school, college or evening class). The teacher is there to give guidance and direction on what to do. Activities include reading books, taking notes, answering questions and working with other people.

Online learning is completely different. All the direction is provided by the course materials. Activities such as reading, note taking and answering questions mostly take place at the computer. Working with other people is done
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5.3 Event-related potentials

When a sense organ (eye, ear, etc.) receives a stimulus, the event eventually causes neurons to ‘fire’ (i.e. produce electrical discharges) in the receiving area of the brain. The information is sent on from these first sites to other brain areas. With appropriate apparatus and techniques it is possible to record the electrical signals, using electrodes attached to the scalp. The electrical potentials recorded are called event-related potentials (ERPs), since they dependably follow
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1.7.2 Differentiating within dyslexia – acquired versus developmental dyslexia and the search

There has also been continued debate regarding the variability within any dyslexic population, the apparent variety of forms that dyslexia can take. Given the complexity of the skills required to develop fluent reading and spelling perhaps this is not surprising. The variability within dyslexia may simply reflect the fact that this complex process can go wrong in different ways and for different reasons.

The term ‘dyslexia’ was originally used to refer to the acquired dysl
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1.2.2 Medical approaches to normality

What did you write for ‘normal’ eyesight? The ability to see clearly without glasses? It is unlikely that you wrote down short- or long-sightedness as an example of ‘normal’ eyesight, even though they are very common. However, they are not seen as ‘normal’ because having to wear glasses is perceived as a limitation or even a form of disability. This relates to one of several so-called ‘medical models’ of normality, which centre on the idea of uniformity of physical and psychol
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3 Sharing the workload

The new terms of reference for the premises committee of one nursery school were clear. The committee would meet three times: in October, February and June. In October they would tour the school with the headteacher and agree what improvements could be made to the school environment. In February they would check how the work was progressing, identify the money that was to be available from the budget in April, and agree thei
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