Introducing Health Sciences: Trauma, Repair and Recovery
Traumatic injury causes millions of deaths and disabilities globally. How does the body react to tissue damage and what are the psychological effects of injury? The six video tracks in this album present a range of powerful and moving case studies and show how access to emergency and longer-term care can help. We find out how falls affect the elderly, what injuries motorcycle accidents can cause, and how a victim of the 2005 London underground bombings has learned to cope with mental trauma. Th
Author(s): The OpenLearn team

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Acknowledgements

This unit is taken from Perspectives on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Course Reader) which forms part of the core text for the Open University course K221 Perspectives on Complementary and Alternative Medicine, (eds Tom Heller, Geraldine Lee-Treweek, Jeanne Katz, Julie Stone and Sue Spurr) (The Open University) published by Routledge, Taylor and Francis in association with The Open University. Copyright © The Open University 2005.

Except for third party material
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2015 The Open University

2.3.1 Patients and therapeutic responsibility

Activity 6: Therapeutic responsibility

0 hours 15 minutes

Based on your own experience, and using the evidence you have read about and heard, answer the following ques
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2015 The Open University

6.3 (b) Switching to renewable energy sources

The use of renewable energy usually involves environmental impacts of some kind, but these are normally lower than those of fossil or nuclear sources.

Approaches (a) and (b) are essentially 'supply-side' measures – applied at the supply end of the long chain that leads from primary energy production to useful energy consumption.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

6.1 Introduction

So far, we have briefly introduced three key approaches to improving the sustainability of human energy use in the future. These are:

  • (a) 'cleaning-up' fossil and nuclear technologies;

  • (b) switching to renewable energy sources;

  • (c) using energy more efficiently.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.3 Indirect use of solar energy

The above examples illustrate the direct harnessing of the sun's radiant energy to produce heat and electricity. But the sun's energy can also be harnessed via other forms of energy that are indirect manifestations of its power. Principally, these are bioenergy and hydropower, already discussed in Section 3 above, together with wind energy and wave power.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Conclusion

In this Introduction we have explored the development of technology from the start of the Industrial Revolution to the present day. At the same time we have traced the increasing impact our industrial societies have had on our environment, and the role that science and technology has played in this. We have explored some major global environmental issues, in particular our dependence on the exploitation of fossil fuels, and have outlined some of the fundamental constraints on the abili
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.1 Domestic appliances and fossil fuels

For this second case study I shall look specifically at the energy use of domestic 'cold appliances', that is freezers and refrigerators, and discuss whether efficiency measures can play a significant role in reducing their energy consumption. The reason for this is quite simple. For many years there has been well-documented evidence of the damage to the environment and cost to human life associated with the extraction, transport and consumption of fossil fuels such as coal and oil, from smog
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.3 Activities

Activity 2A sets the scene by focusing on the 'big picture' where you will be asked to choose between four alternative visions of the future. This activity radically shifts the scale of investigation from the personal to the global. However, as with all systems, the emergent behaviour of society is a resul
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Conclusion

We have seen how a solution falls into one of three categories (innovation by context, innovation by development, and routine solution) according to the need that drives it. Furthermore, the need is shown to be the point of reference that should be kept in sight throughout the process of finding solutions. Unless the need is accurately stated, the ideal solution cannot be obtained – a case of 'garbage in, garbage out'.

We have examined the process of finding a solution step by step, u
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3.3 Spider silk

The presence of regions of helical and sheet-like structures within a protein will affect its properties in different ways: a particularly striking example of this is provided by spider silk.

Imagine a polymer that forms fibres stronger, by mass, than steel and can be processed from water at ambient temperature and low pressure. As a consequence of its biological origin, it is extremely environmentally friendly and totally recyclable. It may sound like science fiction, but this i
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

8.1 Loose ends

Before moving into a discussion of the missing element of the rich picture, I want to direct your attention to all the thoughts and ideas I have encouraged you not to put into your rich picture. I imagine you might have collected quite a list of loose ends. The next activity will involve some of these.

Expect to take about half an hour to do the next activity.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2015 The Open University

7.5 Summary

I hope that, by now, you have a rich picture you are pleased with. This is a considerable achievement because, despite the informality of the rich picture's style, a rich picture that effectively captures the complex situation takes a lot of effort to achieve. It depends crucially on being prepared to enter into the experience of the situation of interest and to interrogate that experience thoroughly. Noticing is not enough. Each feature of the situation has to be carefully captured by repres
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2015 The Open University

2.5 Why intentions?

Most of the rest of Grice's paper is dedicated to spelling out a way of identifying the meaning of an individual utterance ‘on an occasion’ with the content of the utterer's intentions (Step One). The hard task he faces is to say what type of intention creates meaning. If someone shouts ‘I saw a film last night’ extremely loudly at their brother with the intention of making this brother fall off his bike, this ‘utterance’ (if that is the right word) does not thereby mean fall o
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.3 Grice on natural and non-natural meaning

Ironically, the word ‘meaning’ has many different meanings. There are four occurrences of ‘mean’ (or ‘meaning’ or ‘meant’, etc.), italicised, in the following paragraph:

Roberto's instructor had been mean to put it so bluntly, but she was probably correct that his short legs meant he would never be a great dancer. He turned into the narrow alleyway, meaning to take a shortcut ho
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.1 Introduction

The distinction noted in section 1 between the representational properties of a linguistic utterance (its ‘meaning’) and the representational properties of a mental state (its ‘content’) gives rise, naturally enough, to the suspicion that one of these might be more fundamental than the other. In this section I will look at a theory, most closely associated with the British philosopher H.P. Grice (1913–88), to the effect that the source of an utterance's meaning is the speaker's mind
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4 Conclusion

In this introductory course, we have aimed to get you started on exploring the Classical world by introducing you to the sources upon which you can build your knowledge and understanding. We have also started your exploration of both time and space in the Classical world. This is only the point of departure; from here you will go on to explore places and time in much more detail and practise more critical analysis of source materials of all types. Good luck with your studies.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3.3 Ancient places

In the previous section you have been studying time: now you need to move on to that other great regulator of human activity – place. You may already have a firm grip of the geography of the Mediterranean region and this will give you a head start, but as you will discover, places in the past were not the same as they are now. The course team have prepared a variety of learning materials for registered students to master the geography of the ancient Mediterranean, and this course gives you
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.4.2 The visual arts

These are closely related to archaeology. They, too, are things we can look at and touch after all. The difference is very much one of interpretation. Are the Parthenon statues art or archaeology; is an ancient painted pot art or archaeology? In order to avoid such questions, many people use the term ‘material culture’ to cover both. For many purposes, the difference doesn't matter. In fact, it is a good illustration of the advantages of interdisciplinary work, with different kinds of app
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.3 The use of sources

As you saw in the video clips and the introduction to the essays, engagement with the evidence from and about the Classical world that we can still access lies at the heart of exploring the Classical world (as indeed any other place or period in the past). Work with sources is a constant feature of Classical Studies. This section, therefore, introduces you to the available sources, and to ways of working with them.

We'll begin by discussing the different types of sources; later you will
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University