1.9 Conclusion

If we try to recapitulate what we have done in this unit two main areas need to be considered: is there likely to be a European identity in the near future? and how important are national sentiments going to be?

While it could be said that by the end of the twentieth century the EU had become a reasonably integrated economic space politically, and especially at the cultural level, progress was limited. But even at the economic level, areas like labour mobility were still very low in the
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1.4.3 Summary

  • The process toward European unification was initiated by top political elites in France, Italy, Germany and the Benelux countries after the Second World War.

  • New collective actors are progressively being engaged in European affairs, among them the Labour movement, regional movements and new social movements such as the environmentalism of groups like Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth.

  • European elites, although engaged in a con
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1.4.2 Unification and the EU

With the development of the EU an arena for collective action has appeared. But, as we shall see in SubSection 1.4.3, it is rather limited and it cannot be compared to the public sphere of the member states. Although collective actors have reacted to the emergence of new European-based institutions, due to internal constraints not all are in the same position to make the best of the EU opportunities. According to Marks and McAdam (
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1.4.1 Historical background

European unification was begun by the social democratic and Christian democratic leaders of the Western European states who had fought each other during the Second World War. The idea was to create a community of states that would guarantee peace and prosperity. The process turned out to be long and arduous, particularly after the federalist failures of the Congress of the Hague (1949) and the European Defence Community (1953). The main emphasis was on economic co-operation, and the project w
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References

Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2003a) Every Child Matters: Next Steps, London, DfES.
Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2003b) Together from the Start: Practical Guidance for Professionals Working with Disabled Children, London, DfES.
Jeffs, T. and Smith, M. K. (1999) Informal Education, 2nd edn, Nottingham, Education Now.

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Strawkets and Control
In this activity, students investigate the effect that fins have on rocket flight. Students construct two paper rockets that they can launch themselves by blowing through a straw. One "strawket" has wings and the other has fins. Students observe how these two control surfaces affect the flight of their strawkets. Students discover how difficult control of rocket flight is and what factors can affect it.
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References

Amnesty International (1999) Child Soldiers: one of the worst abuses of child labour, London, Amnesty International (AI Index IOR 42/01/99).
Bandura, A. (1977) Social Learning Theory, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall.
BBC Online (2001) Paramilitary-style attacks double, http://www.news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/uk/northern_ireland/newsid_1 503000/1503496.h
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Global Concerns of National Importance for the Next U.S. Administration
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2.1 Who are the paraprofessionals?

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