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1.3 Attending to sounds

From the earlier sections, you will appreciate that the auditory system is able to separate different, superimposed sounds on the basis of their different source directions. This makes it possible to attend to any one sound without confusion, and we have the sensation of moving our ‘listening attention’ to focus on the desired sound. For example, as I write this I can listen to the quiet hum of the computer in front of me, or swing my attention to the bird song outside the window to my ri
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3.3.1 Multisensory teaching for students

Guyer et al. (1993) tested the effectiveness of the Wilson Reading System for improving spelling in higher education students with dyslexia. They compared this technique to a non-phonic approach that teaches visual memory techniques to help students to remember frequently misspelled words. A control group of students with dyslexia but who had specifically requested no intervention formed the control group. Both intervention groups were tutored in the given technique for two, one-hour sessions
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2.3 Biological explanations of dyslexia

Some physical characteristics appear to be ‘typical’ of people with reading difficulties, although their relevance is debated. These include being male, tendencies towards left-handedness or mixed-handedness (i.e. inconsistency of hand preference across different tasks), and a variety of neurological 'soft’ signs and minor physical anomalies. We will consider each of these in detail in the sections that follow. There is also some evidence that people with dyslexia (and the
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1.5.1 Definition by exclusion

A person is ‘dyslexic’ if no alternative explanation can be offered for their reading and writing difficulties.

In the UK, interest in children who showed a specific lack of ability in literacy grew as all children became entitled to a basic education. For the first time there was an expectation that all adults should be literate. Initially, it was proposed that specific difficulties in learn
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References

Creese, M. (1995) Effective Governors, Effective Schools; developing the partnership, London, David Fulton Publishers Ltd.
Creese, M. and Earley, P. (1999) Improving Schools and Governing Bodies, London, Routledge.
Governors in Suffolk Schools, www.suffolk.gov.uk

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5.4.2 When to evaluate accessibility

Technical and usable accessibility should be evaluated throughout the design life cycle, just as general usability should be. As with usability, the earlier in the process accessibility is evaluated the more likely the final product will be both technically and usably accessible. Accessibility can be evaluated or tested in early ideas and paper designs as well as prototype systems, and different aspects of accessibility can be evaluated at these different stages. For example, the general acce
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4.9 Resources

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) (a part of the US Department of Education), ‘Special analysis 2002: nontraditional undergraduates’

http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2002/analyses/nontraditional/index.asp

OU ‘Introduction to accessibility’ http://kn.open.ac.uk/public/index.cfm?wpid=2488

OU ‘Guidelines for describing visual teaching material’ http://kn.open.ac.uk/public/index.cfm?workspacepageid=2709


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4.5.1 Don't – alter courses to the disadvantage of non-disabled students

Educators are not expected to make changes that would make the course less effective for most other students. For example, audioconferencing may be a valuable tool that has a positive effect on students’ grades. In this case, you would not be expected to abandon it, even if the audioconferencing cannot be made accessible for deaf students.

Health and safety for all students also has to be maintained, although it is rare for there to be a conflict.


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3.9 Activity task 5: without a mouse

If you never use a mouse, you can skip this activity.

If you have your usual document editor open, close it now.

Put your mouse where you can't reach it easily and continue using only the keyboard. If you get stuck, use the mouse but keep count of the number of times you use it and what for.

See if you can open the editor using the Windows keystrokes.

If you don't know where to start, here are the keystrokes. (These insructions are for a PC with Windows software. If yo
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2.5 Resources

Barnes, C. (1992) Disabling Imagery and the Media, The British Council of Organisations of Disabled People, Halifax, Ryburn Publishing.


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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

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1 Myths and misconceptions

Physical education provides opportunities for pupils to be creative, competitive and to face up to different challenges as individuals, and in groups and teams. It promotes positive attitudes towards active and healthy lifestyles.

(Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (2004) www.nc.uk.net/esd/teaching/pe/index.htm)

What does this mean for PE teachers? How can PE teachers effectively help to
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Introduction

In this unit, aimed at teachers of Physical Education, we begin by looking at some of the common misconceptions relating to fitness and activity levels together with accepted definitions of these concepts. We consider how active young people should actually be, and discuss how PE teachers can ensure they are making an effective contribution to this area of public health.


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References

Hughes, M. (1991) Closing the Learning Gap, Network Educational Press Ltd.
Lucas, W. (2001) Power Up Your Mind, Nicholas Brearley Publishing.
Rose, C. (1985) Accelerated Learning, Accelerated Learning Systems Ltd.
UNESCO (1977) Suggestive, accelerative learning and teaching: A manual of classroom procedures base
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3. Review and recall

Learning cannot take place without memory, and we expect our students to be able to process, synthesise and recall a vast amount of information every day. There are, however, some simple strategies that we can employ to help them to do this.

Firstly consider the natural concentration span. A rough guide is that concentration span in minutes is equivalent to chronological age in years, +/− 2 minutes. That means that even our most attentive 18 year olds need a short concentration break
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1 6. Conclusion

This unit has explored the ways in which moving and still images may motivate and inspire pupils in their understanding of music. You may find it helpful to share your experiences of using images with your peers, perhaps through a short presentation to your department.


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2. Starters

We all have pictures in our heads but some people use them more than others.

‘Doing’ can often be the most powerful way to learn. Before discussing other people's thoughts on visualisation, it is probably worthwhile to spend some time exploring some visualisation activities with your colleagues. This should enable you to consider the next section from an experiential perspective.


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6.2.4 Europe

Finally, an area that is subject to much dispute and political discussion is the whole issue of working conditions and the role of the EU. As already mentioned, the background to this is the question of the European Social Chapter. The UK has opted out of this EU initiative, which has to do with establishing common rights and conditions for working environments across the EU member states. A controversial aspect of this concerns the EU's European Works Councils Directive (see www.dti.g
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Introduction

Participating in the democratic processes is seen as being a fundamental aspect of citizenship. All pupils need a broad knowledge and understanding of the rights, responsibilities and duties of citizens, as well as an understanding of forms of government. Notions of citizenship have been forged alongside the expansion of the right to vote and the development of our ideas about democracy. In this unit we explore different interpretations of democracy and strategies for involving pupils in con
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Acknowledgements

The Open University worked in collaboration with the Specialist School and Academies Trust to prepare this unit for its original publication on TeachandLearn.net.

Author Details

Written by Sylvia Thomson

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