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4.2.2 Pronouns

Pronouns are used to avoid repeating nouns and to supply the subjects for verbs. I, me, we and us are known as the first person pronouns, you is the second person pronoun, and he, him, she, her, it, they and them are third person pronouns in English. In Latin, pronouns are used only when really necessary for the sense of a sentence, or sometimes for emphasis. Often, a pronoun subject, such as I, you or she, can be understoo
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3 The pronunciation of Latin

Contrary to what many people think, we do know how classical Latin (the Latin spoken in the first century BC and the first century AD) was pronounced. One of the main clues is provided by the spelling of Latin names in Greek: thus, since Latin Valeria, for instance, was spelled in Greek, we can tell that Latin
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2 The need to commemorate

The subject of memorial is a good one. People often have a powerful need to commemorate those who have died. They may have lost someone close to them, or they may be thinking about loss of life in disaster, or war. You may well recognise that feeling. Such memorials take different forms, from flowers left at a particular spot, to public triumphal arches and works of art dedicated to the memory of specific individuals. But to begin, we want to focus on a particular form of remembrance – war
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7.3 Childbirth

One aspect of life which is often seen as having been ‘medicalised’ in the twentieth century is that of childbirth. Historians argue that until the nineteenth century, pregnancy and birth were dealt with within families, with minimal input from medical practitioners. By the late twentieth century, pregnancy was labelled as a form of illness by some practitioners, births took place in hospital and pregnant women, new mothers and their babies were subjected to constant supervision by medica
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7.1 A review

All the evidence you have looked at so far suggests that historians are right to see a ‘medicalisation’ of society in the sense that when ill, people were more likely to consult a qualified medical practitioner in 1930 than they had been in 1880. The extension of medical services – combined with the increase in chronic complaints – meant that working-class patients in particular had much greater contact with general practitioners, health visitors and nurses. However, it is also clear
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • describe the Scottish contributions to the history of medical thinking and practice in the nineteenth century;

  • give examples of many medical advances that were influenced by wider social, economic, political and cultural contexts;

  • understand how developments in medical education permitted women to qualify and practise as doctors;

  • appreciate that the laboratory had a limited impact on medi
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2.4.5 Philosophy

This is yet another essentially literary source, so we can be brief. In fact, as in the case of history, its distinction from literature is anything but cut and dried. The only reason we mention it here separately is because we want to make it explicit that almost everything we have said for literature holds for philosophy too. Many varieties of philosophy aim to find absolute truths. In this respect, philosophy is less concerned with particular periods and places than is, for instance, histo
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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Dr Nigel Warburton

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to repro
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7.3 Masks and disguises

Masks were used in classical Greek theatre to exaggerate expressions so that they could be seen in the large open-air amphitheatres. Most of us are familiar with the famous stereotypes for tragedy and comedy, but masks were also identified with particular types, whether comic or tragic, such as old man, or king, courtesan or queen. Masks have not been part of the dramatic conventions in Britain, but have been used to reflect social conventions of the Restoration period. The connotations of
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Introduction

This unit looks at the management of local knowledge-generating practices. You will explore the processes that link practices to global contexts and learn to identify the key dimensions of globalisation and explore the implications for knowing how to ‘do things’ in a variety of contexts. You will go on to compare the approaches to managing and organising, based on universally applicable principles, with context-specific rationalities and look at how viable interpretations of reality might
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4.3.2 Operational excellence

Companies that pursue this [value discipline] are not primarily product or service innovators, nor do they cultivate a deep one-to-one relationship with their customers. Instead, operationally excellent companies provide middle-of-the-market products at the best price with the least inconvenience. Their proposition to customers is simple: low price and hassle-free service.

(Treacy and Wiersema, 1996)


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Introduction

This unit is from our archive and it is an adapted extract from The professional certificate in management (B615) which is no longer in presentation. If you wish to study formally at The Open University, you may wish to explore the courses we offer in this curriculum area.

In this session we look at the first stage of managing people – attracting and selecting
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1 Overview

This unit begins with some explanations of culture and discussion of how to distinguish between national and organisational culture. Reading what some well-known writers on organisational and national culture have to say will help you recognise some of the main dimensions of culture and reinforces that all of us, including organisations, construct different views of the world as a result of cultural influences. Thus culture plays a key role in the ways in which organisations perceive the envi
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3.6.1 Saying thank you and acknowledging current contribution

Probably the single most important way of retaining people's support and goodwill is to say thank you promptly and to demonstrate that you have noted and valued whatever it is they have contributed. If you do not have the systems to guarantee that supporters are thanked appropriately, then you cannot seriously expect to move anyone anywhere – be it up a pyramid, into a kite or round a matrix.


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3.5 Building the relationship: developing your donors

Donor development is all about ensuring that you and your donors get the most you can from your relationship in ways which are mutually agreeable and beneficial. It is the process by which, from their very first contact onwards, you can encourage and enable donors and supporters to make the maximum contribution they both desire and are capable of.

Effective donor and supporter development depends hugely on your capacity to keep an accurate record of each donor's unique involvement with
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4.2 Stakeholder analysis

Figure 3 illustrates the range of stakeholders who could have an interest in health-related community social marketing programmes.

Introduction

The default learning path in this unit takes a problem-based approach to learning about project management. You work through a realistically complex and messy example of project management and engage in a series of tasks associated with the case-study materials. At each stage of the case study you have access to project management resources which describe useful approaches to project management and introduce useful frameworks and tools. However, these are provided as an aid to your learning n
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Unit Image

Author: Ramy Majouji

All other materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.


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1.6 Keeping up-to-date

How familiar are you with the following different ways of keeping up to date with information; alerts, mailing lists, newsgroups, blogs, RSS, professional bodies and societies?

  • 5 – Very familiar

  • 4 – Familiar

  • 3 – Fairly familiar

  • 2 – Not very familiar

  • 1 – Not familiar at all


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7.2.1 Labelling behaviour

Signalling that you are about to suggest a solution to a problem or to ask an important question is one way of drawing attention to this and puts pressure on the person or persons at whom your signal is directed to respond.


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