3.1 Three interpretative methods

If the work of art has an existence beyond that of its maker, what are the limits of interpretation? This is a huge question, and possible limits and methods of interpretation are continually being propounded within the discipline. Helen Langdon chose to set Caravaggio's art within his life, with all the associations connected to the artist's biography. This course will look at ways in which the work of art can be interpreted within and outwith references to the artist who created that work.<
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4 Conclusion

  1. We began by considering the meanings of ‘imagination’ and related terms in everyday contexts, and then looked at the twelve conceptions of imagination that Stevenson distinguishes. This suggested a first definition of ‘imagining’ – ‘thinking of something that is not present to t
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6.1 London

London's population and economic size are those of a region. As such it contains various peripheries within itself. Further to this, there are some issues, mainly economic planning and transport, which are closely connected with the rest of south-east England. The Labour government introduced a Greater London Authority (Referendum) Bill in October 1997 and organised a referendum on 7 May 1998 in which 72 per cent voted (on a low turn-out of 33.5 per cent) in favour of establishing a Mayor and
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Take your teaching online
In this free course, Take your teaching online, you will gain  knowledge fundamental to delivering effective teaching online. You will hear about the experiences of real educators, be introduced to cutting edge research, and understand the ideas and tools that shape how we teach and learn online. You will also learn useful methods that will guide you to test out these new ideas in your own practice. Author(s): Creator not set

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Sporting women in the media
The mass media (e.g. radio, TV, internet) has become one of the most powerful institutional influences in society. This free course, Sporting women in the media, explores whether gendered inequalities exist in sport by evaluating the media coverage. The media can be highly influential in shaping perceptions about gender in sport and headlines indicative of differences in how male and female athletes are regarded in the media. In the course you’ll examine messages that the media send us about g
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4.3 Character code functions

Many programming languages provide two functions associated with the character codes (see Table 2). We shall call these functions ASC and CHR. ASC takes a character as input, and returns the integer giving the ASCII code of the input character. CHR returns the character whose ASCII code is the input inte
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4.3 IP over ATM

You have seen that the IP protocol supports a connectionless service, and the ATM and TCP protocols support a connection-oriented service.

SAQ 8 (Revision)

What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of connect
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7.2 Adding 2's complement integers

The leftmost bit at the start of a 2's complement integer (which represents the presence or absence of the weighting −128) is treated in just the same way as all the other bits in the integers. So the rules given at the start of Section 7.1 for adding unsigned integers can be used.

Example 7

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7.1 Adding unsigned integers

Study note: You may like to have the Numeracy Resource (attached below) to hand as you study Section 7. It offers extra practice with the manipulations, and you may find this useful.

Please click on the 'View document' link below to read the Reference Manual.

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Teaching secondary science
This free course, Teaching secondary science, will identify and explore some of the key issues around science pedagogy in secondary schools. Through coming to understand these issues and debates, you will reflect on your practice as a science teacher and develop a greater awareness of the wider context of science education and how this affects science in the secondary school curriculum Author(s): Creator not set

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English: skills for learning
English: skills for learning, is a free course for anybody who is thinking of studying for a university degree and would like to develop the English reading and writing skills needed to succeed. You will learn through a range of engaging activities aimed at extending your existing language skills. First published on Thu, 07 Feb 2019 as Author(s): Creator not set

4.4.1 Engaging with the content

For example, when I read in paragraph 3 of Layard's article that ‘41 per cent of people in the top quarter of incomes are ‘very happy’’ I asked myself:

  • Why is ‘very happy’ in quotation marks?

  • Is 41 per cent about what I'd expect?

  • What is this telling me?

As soon as I thought about it, I realised that ‘very happy’ could be a response that people had ticked on a questionnaire. Perhaps th
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2.2 The ‘academic’ style

You might also be put off by the ‘academic’ style of writing. In everyday life, what you read is usually written to grab your attention and get a message across quickly before you ‘switch channels’. By contrast, academic texts often raise broad, abstract questions and are unconcerned about arriving at quick answers. For example, where a newspaper headline might say:

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2.1.3 Concept cards

Another way to tackle unfamiliar words is to start a ‘concept card’ system, using index cards. When you meet a word which seems important, take a new card and write the word at the top, followed by any useful information you have found. File the cards alphabetically and add details as you come across new information. (It is worth getting an index card box anyway, then you can try out various ways of using it to organise your studies.)


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References

Bruner, J. (1996 ) The Culture of Education, Cambridge, Harvard University Press.
Caswell, B. and Lamon, M. (1999) ‘The Development of Scientific Literacy: the Evolution of Ideas in A Knowledge Building Classroom’ in Leach, J. & Moon, R.E. (1999) Learners & Pedagogy, London, Paul Chapman.
Cummins, J. and Sayers, D. (1995) Brave New Schools, Toronto, OI
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Acknowledgements

Professor David Lambert is Chief Executive of the Geographical but remains Research Associate of the Institute of Education (London). He is a former secondary geography teacher (for 12 years) and developed a scholarly interest in assessment issues following the introduction of the national curriculum. He also has a research interest in the way teachers select and use textbooks with pupils. He has a long-standing concern with moral and cultural aspects of geography education and is curr
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2.1 The significance of geography as a subject

It has been argued that geography ‘has been hijacked by environmentalists’. Following the publication of his original article, ‘Constructing a value map’ (see under the link below), Alex Standish (a former geography teacher) appeared on the Radio 4 Today programme to discuss this topic. Listen to the interview again and read the transcript again by clicking on the link below.

Read Alex Standish's 'Constructing a value map' by clicking 'view document' below.


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References

Davies, S. White Man Sleeps, performed by Siobhan Davies Dance Company.
Rist, R. (1991) ‘Dance Science’, The Dancing Times, December 1991, p. 243.

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6.5 Training at high altitude

Many of the world's best endurance athletes train at high altitudes – a long way above sea level – to improve their performance. At high altitudes there is less oxygen in the air and it's believed that the body has to work harder to extract what little oxygen remains. When the athlete returns to lower altitudes, their body retains the ability to use oxygen more efficiently and their performance will have improved.

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1 Introductory advice

There are two ways to approach this course. The first is the more natural one: to read it straight through to get a general feel for its style and content, and to see whether you are going to find the course and the issues it raises interesting; in short, to get an overview. There is nothing wrong with this at all.

You will find as you read through it, though, that the course covers a wide range of topics. In part this is because the authors takes a broad view of 'Technology'. We see it
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