## Activity 2

Geometry
Geometry is concerned with the various aspects of size, shape and space. In this free course you will explore the concepts of angles, shapes, symmetry, area and volume through interactive activities. First published on Fri, 04 Aug 2017 as Geometry
Author(s): Creator not set

Critical phenomena are the simplest to model of the three classes of temperature-dependent changes we have been examining. We don't need a power series such as 1 + Î±T+ Î²T2+â€¦, nor exponentials such as exp(âˆ’Ea/kT). Instead we can describe the behaviour with logical expressions like these:

if T < Tc, then property=subcritical value (or fu
Author(s): The Open University

The final trick I want to show you with Arrhenius's law is how to extract the constants rï»¿0 and Eï»¿a from experimental data. If the Arrhenius equation (Section 4.3.1) is 'turned inside out' by taking natural logarithms of both sides it becomes:

Author(s): The Open University

Thermally activated processes are those that get going not because of average effects, but because the fraction of particles in the tail of the distribution increases with temperature. This is a basic property of the thermal distribution we have been discussing. For instance, what would take 30Â 000 years at room temperature may happen in under one second at 1000 K if it depends on how many particles have an energy in excess of 1 eV.

The next step in the study of energy distribut
Author(s): The Open University

This is a long section and needs to be studied carefully. Keep your eye on the overall goal of seeking useful thermal effects on which to base devices.

This section continues the discussion of heat at an atomic level. You will need this background to appreciate the characteristics of processes activated by thermal energy â€“ for example, the softening of glass in a gas flame, the diffusion of atoms through solids, the electrical conductivity of ceramics, and many chemical reactions. Suc
Author(s): The Open University

The temperature-dependent effects used in most thermometers have a fairly steady change over a good range of temperature (Figure 3a). By contrast, phase changes, of which melting and boiling are the common examples, happen at sharply critical temperatures (Author(s): The Open University

In moving from the 'possible solutions' to the 'best solution' box, Figure 12, we have to assume that a certain amount of evaluation has been done in the previous loop. The solution is still on paper, and probably not much more than a sketch, but something is badly wrong if the best solution to come forward has n
Author(s): The Open University

The last section has established that engineering is about satisfying needs. In fact, with so many needs, it's a wonder that not everyone is an engineer! So, now that we have talked about both needs and problems, the logical progression is to examine the relationship between them.

Take the water example as being a fundamental need. We can state it thus:

This village needs a supply of clean water.
Author(s): The Open University

Innovation by development is about changing the bit that doesn't work, or that could work better, to improve the function of the whole for reasons of cost, performance, ease of manufacture or competitive edge. You probably noticed in Box 1 'Innovation by context â€“ an example' that Baylis had to incorporate a nu
Author(s): The Open University

Collapse at Kinzua: Evidence for Tay on open2.net.
Forensic engineering: the Tay Bridge disaster on open2.net.
Lewis, PR and Reynolds, K (2002) â€˜Forensic engineering: a reappraisal of the Tay Bridge disasterâ€™, Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 287â€“98.

Author(s): The Open University

Figures 23 and 24 present the east- and west-facing views of a collapsed pier, pier 5, which lay just ahead of the train be
Author(s): The Open University

In Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) Edmund Burke (1729â€“97) made clear his hostile reaction to the Revolution, which he perceived as a dangerous destruction of tradition and continuity in favour of abstract Enlightenment principles. On the other hand, there was a substantial cross-section of British opinion that initially warmly welcomed the Revolution, including Wilberforce himself, as well as much more radical individuals, such as Thomas Paine (1737â€“1809).

Init
Author(s): The Open University

One of the main claims that Berlin makes in â€˜Two Concepts of Libertyâ€™ is a historical one. It is that positive theories of freedom, or perversions of them, have been more frequently used as instruments of oppression than have negative ones. These positive theories typically rely on a split between a â€˜higherâ€™ and a â€˜lowerâ€™ self, or between a â€˜rationalâ€™ and an â€˜empiricalâ€™ self as Berlin sometimes puts it. Coercion is justified on the grounds that it leads to a realisation of
Author(s): The Open University

Goodman, M. (1997) The Roman World, 44 BCâ€“AD 180, London and New York, Routledge, Routledge History of the Ancient World.
Nicolet, C. (1991) Geography, Space and Politics in the Early Roman Empire, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.
Grant, M. (trans.) (1996) Tacitus: the Annals of Imperial Rome, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books. (First published 1956.
Author(s): The Open University

Remember that although the city was important to him the emperor did not have to pass all his time in Rome, and many emperors visited other parts of the empire. Such mobility was often associated with military campaigns. For instance, there were a significant number of campaigns undertaken during the reign of Augustus, and these were generally headed by the emperor or members of his family. Emperors such as Gaius, Claudius, Domitian, Trajan and Marcus Aurelius also campaigned on the edges of
Author(s): The Open University

Controlling and governing the provinces was a substantial part of an emperor's remit. Here you will consider different ways in which the emperor had contact with his provincial subjects. You will work through some sections from books by Goodman and Lewis, and Reinhold and watch a short video sequence.

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## Study another free course

There are more thanÂ 800 coursesÂ on OpenLearnÂ for you to
Author(s): The Open University

It is common practice for an entire organisation's marketing activities, such as advertising, sales and market research, to be grouped together in a marketing department. The department's function is to create marketing plan activities that are designed to increase the customer's understanding of existing products and services. The marketing director manages all specialisms. Marketing is seen as â€˜what the marketing department doesâ€™.

Author(s): The Open University

After studying this course, you should be able to:

• have greater insight into decision-making processes

• use that insight to make more effective decisions

• possess a range of different perspectives on what counts as an â€˜effectiveâ€™ decision

• be better equipped to understand and influence the decision-making processes of other individuals and groups

• understand better how people perceive and decide about risk.

• Author(s): The Open University