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Introduction

Many managers find that they are required to manage projects. In this unit we aim to help you to take an overview of the features of a project and the issues that arise in managing a project. Once you have identified a piece of work as a project, you are able to use a number of management approaches that have proven effective in managing projects. A project is a one-off, non-repeated activity or set of tasks that achieves clearly stated objectives within a time limit. Most projects are goal-o
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Acknowledgements

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Chris Stalker, He
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Introduction

Campaigning organisations, whatever their size or orientation, are intent on achieving change in the behaviour or attitudes of their target groups. But if you have ever tried working to achieve change in this way, you will probably know that getting the results you want from campaigning can be difficult. It is all too easy to get sidetracked, or run out of energy and resources, before the objective has been achieved. And the decision to campaign on a particular issue can expose tensions and c
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Acknowledgements

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Photographs/Cartoons

Figure 1 (top right and left, bottom right): Mike Levers, Th
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should:

  • understand why and how innovation is important;

  • recognise the benefits which innovation can confer on an innovating organisation.


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7 FAQs

These questions represent general issues about ‘getting started’, but they have a particular focus on special requirements, whether it’s about volunteering for particular age groups or virtual volunteering for those with a lack of regular time to commit, or problems with mobility.

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4 Getting started

Here’s a seven-point action plan to help get you started and activities to give you ideas about creating development opportunities and monitoring the progress you make.

1) Review your objectives/wish list (see Section 1). Be clear about what you want to achieve and how much time you can offer (it could be q
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1.2.2 Summary

  • The results of successive editions of the Eurobarometer show that in most EU countries only a very small percentage of people, around 5 per cent, declare having an exclusive European identity, while up to 50 per cent do not have any sense of European identity.

  • European political identity is weak and there is a great variation across states.


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1.2 Discourse as social action

Consider this first transcribed extract from the interview. Note that the numbers in brackets refer to pauses and give the length of the pause in seconds, while (.) signifies a micro-pause too small to count and .hhh indicates an audible in-breath.

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1.1 Introduction

In this reading I focus on a piece of data to introduce some of the main themes and issues in discourse research. The material I have chosen to examine has historical interest. It is a public text of some import for British society and yet it also has a curiously private and confessional aspect. I am going to look at extracts from Princess Diana's interview with Martin Bashir which was screened in 1995 on Panorama – a British news-documentary television programme.

What was stri
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Learning outcomes

On completion of this unit, you should be able to:

  • identify some key themes in discourse analysis;

  • appreciate the consequences of discourse research for some key topics in social science, such as indentity, interaction and subjectivity;

  • be familiar with some discourse analytical techniques and their consequences for analysing social interactions.


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1.5.4 Summary

  • The Euro has become an important currency of denomination for government and corporate bonds.

  • There is now emerging a two-currency world, made up of the US dollar and the EU Euro.

  • The advantages to countries of being able to borrow internationally in their own currencies have not been lost to them, so there will be an incentive for the east-Asian countries to develop their own ‘regional’ financial markets.


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1.3 The arrival of the Euro and the European Central Bank

The ECB (founded in 1998) is a formally independent body charged with defining and implementing monetary policy for the EU. It holds the reserves of the national banks of those participating in the Euro-zone, and also has responsibility for the Euro exchange rate (see Section 1.5). This independence
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you will:

  • appreciate the importance of the Euro-zone economy as a player in the international economic system;

  • recognise the importance and role played by the European Central Bank in the conduct of Euro-zone monetary policy;

  • understand the relationship between monetary policy and fiscal policy in the management of the European economy;

  • reflect on the consequences of Euro-zone enlargement for the conduct econo
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Introduction

This unit focuses on key developments in the economy of the European Union (EU) since the advent of the Euro in 1999. Further, it concentrates on the challenges this has posed for economic policy formation and the governance of the EU's expanding economy. One of the central features of the post-Maastricht governance environment is the attempt to create a ‘single market in services’ for Europe. If the 1990s was the decade of the ‘single market programme’ (SMP) which concentrated on the
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3.1 Theorising situations

This unit explores the processes through which we comprehend the world around us. When it comes to understanding and explaining the way that social life operates, social scientists draw from a conceptual tool kit, just as we possess a conceptual tool kit for watching a movie or as a spectator at any sports event. There are times when all human beings feel that something appears to be plausible or appears to be false and we are quite aware that others would disagree with our own point of view.
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8.1.2Why do you think the Home Secretary did not draw on this research when interpreting the asylum

Considering these findings alongside the statistical data and our personal stories, we can draw some conclusions about the production and reproduction of knowledge about refugees and asylum seekers through research:

7 Citizenship as ‘participation in social life’

If ‘citizenship, as social practice, is manifested by direct or indirect participation in public life, by both individuals and groups’ (Kastoryano, 2002, p. 143), then opportunities for asylum seekers and refugees to participate is crucial. Young unaccompanied asylum seekers in Milton Keynes (not one of the government's ‘cluster areas’) were very clear about what participation meant for them: ‘secure housing, full-time education, special language training, friends and community s
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7.1 Summary of Sections 1–3

In summary, this unit has endeavoured to substantiate a variety of related points which epitomise current trends and problems in governing European diversity.

‘Regions’ and ‘regionalism’ in Western Europe display great diversity in economic, social and cultural terms, within particular states as well as between states; regions vary widely in size, population, levels of development, history, identity and politics (or lack thereof). But since the heyday of the centralised nation s
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9.2 Lennox Castle Hospital

This unit looks at the history of institutions in the twentieth century, starting with a case study of Lennox Castle Hospital. It tries to make sense of the history of Lennox Castle, and of institutional life in general, through testimony of those who experienced institutions as inmates and as nurses, as well as through Erving Goffman's model of the ‘total institution’. It examines the social bases of segregation, the professionalisation of staff in asylums and institutions, and campaigns
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