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5 Summary

Earthquakes shake the ground surface, can cause buildings to collapse, disrupt transport and services, and can cause fires. They can trigger landslides and tsunami.

Earthquakes occur mainly as a result of plate tectonics, which involves blocks of the Earth moving about the Earth's surface. The blocks of rock move past each other along a fault. Smaller earthquakes, called foreshocks, may precede the main earthquake, and aftershocks may occur after the main earthquake. Earthquakes are mai
Author(s): The Open University

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1.6.6 Professional bodies and societies

Consider joining a learned society or professional organisation. They can be very useful for conference bulletins as well as in-house publications, often included in the subscription. Don't forget to ask about student rates. Try looking for the websites of learned societies associated with your subject area (e.g. The Royal Society, the Institute of Electrical
Author(s): The Open University

1.6.5 RSS

RSS (‘Really Simple Syndication’ or ‘Rich Site Summary’) newsfeeds supply headlines, links, and article summaries from various websites. By using RSS ‘feedreader’ software you can gather together a range of feeds and read them in one place: they come to you, rather than you having to go out and look for breaking news. The range of RSS feeds on offer is growing daily. There is probably a feed to cover all aspects of your life where you might need the latest information, and you may
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1.5.9 Plagiarism

Referencing is not only useful as a way of sharing information, but also as a means of ensuring that due credit is given to other people’s work. In the electronic information age, it is easy to copy and paste from journal articles and web pages into your own work. But if you do use someone else’s work, you should acknowledge the source by giving a correct reference.

Taking someone's work and not indicating where you took it from is termed plagiarism and is regarded as an infringemen
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1.5.6 Copyright - what you need to know

An original piece of work, whether it is text, music, pictures, sound recordings, web pages, etc., is protected by copyright law and may often have an accompanying symbol (©) and/or legal statement.. In the UK it is the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 which regulates this.

In most circumstances, works protected by copyright can be used in whole or in part only with the permission of the owner. In some cases this permission results in a fee.

However, the UK legislation inc
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1.5.2 Ways of organizing yourself

How do you organize yourself?

Activity

Make a note of how you organise your:

  • emails

  • internet bookmarks or favorites

  • computer files

  • your h
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1.1.4 Evaluating Information

How well does the following statement describe your approach to evaluating the information that you use?

When I come across a new piece of information (e.g. a website, newspaper article) I consider the quality of the information, and based on that I decide whether or not to use it.

  • 5 - This is an excellent match; this is exactly what I do


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References

Note: the websites listed below were last accessed in July 2003.
Alters, B. J. (1997) ‘Whose Nature of Science?’, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43 (1), pp. 39–55.
Amos, S. and Boohan, R. (2002) Aspects of teaching secondary science: perspectives on practice, London, RoutledgeFalmer/Milton Keynes, The Open University.
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2 What is science?

In all subjects – and science no less so than others – definitions are problematic. At one level, science is a body of knowledge about the natural world. But this begs the question: what is peculiar about scientific knowledge as opposed to, taking just one example, an explanation of the origin of the Universe rooted in folklore and superstition? Others might argue that the scientific approach is unique – that the processes involved in doing science are distinct. That might
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9.5 Tables

Using a table or just a set of columns can help you to analyse information and ideas. You can vary the number of columns and rows as needed. The following activity provides an opportunity for you to summarise information in a table.

Activity 7: Completing a table


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9.2 Marking up a text

Although you might not think of this as note-taking, marking the text as you read can be a very useful part of the note-taking process. You can do this by using a highlighter pen, by underlining key points or by making notes in the margin. However, try not to overdo it and only highlight important points.


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5.1 Solicitors

In 2008 there were about 75,000 solicitors working for firms providing legal advice to individuals and companies on a wide range of legal matters including buying and selling houses, family matters, contracts, tax and crime. As laws become more complicated and detailed, there is a growing trend for solicitors to specialise in a particular area of law, for example, crime or family or company. In addition, there were around 20,000 solicitors who did not practise. Solicitors are governed by the
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4.10 Parliamentary control

Initially, Parliament has control in that the enabling or parent Act passed by Parliament sets out the framework or parameters within which delegated legislation is made. In addition, there are scrutiny committees in both Houses of Parliament whose role is to consider the delegated powers proposed by a Bill. However, these committees have limited power. European legislation is considered by a specific committee and local authority byelaws are usually subject to the approval of the Department
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4.5 Byelaws

Byelaws can be made by local authorities and certain other public corporations and companies concerning issues within the scope of their geographic or other areas of responsibility. So, a County Council can make byelaws affecting the whole county, whilst a District or Town Council can only make byelaws for the district or town. Byelaws are usually created when there is no general legislation that deals with an issue that concerns people in a local area. If a council wishes to make a byelaw it
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4.1 What is delegated legislation?

In Parts A and B of this unit you have learnt about the role of Parliament in the law-making process. In addition to the power to make law itself, Parliament can delegate or pass on the power to make law to another person or body. Delegated legislation is law made by another person or body to whom Parliament has delegated or passed on the required authority. The required authority or power is usually given by Parliament in a ‘parent’ Act of Parliament known as an enabling Act
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3,3,7 Royal Assent

You have already seen references to Royal Assent in this unit. The monarch formally assents to a Bill in order for it to pass into law. Royal Assent has never been withheld in recent times. Queen Anne was the last monarch to withhold a Royal Assent, when she blocked a Scottish Militia Bill in 1707. The Queen feared a Scottish militia might be turned against the monarchy.

Since the sixteenth century no monarch has actually signed a Bill themselves. Instead, the monarch signs what are kno
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3.3.6 The House of Lords

The House of Commons and the House of Lords must finally agree on the text of a Bill. If a Bill started life in the House of Commons it is now passed to the House of Lords where it goes through all the stages outlined above. "If the House of Lords votes against a Bill it can go back to the House of Commons and become law if the House of Commons passes it for the second time. The reason for this is that the House of Lords is not an elected body and its function is to refine and add to law rath
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3.3.5 Third reading

This is the final vote on the Bill. It is almost a formality since a Bill which has passed through all the stages above is unlikely to fail at this late stage. In fact, in the House of Commons there will only be a further debate on the Bill if at least six MPs request it. In the House of Lords amendments may sometimes be made at this stage.


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3.3.3 Committee stage

At this stage a detailed examination of each clause of the Bill is undertaken by a committee of between 16 and 50 MPs. The committee subjects the Bill to line-by-line examination and makes amendments. The committee which carries out these discussions comprises MPs representing the different political parties roughly in proportion to the overall composition of the House of Commons. There will therefore be a Government majority on the committee. However, an attempt is made to ensure representat
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3.3.1 First reading

The title of a Bill is read out and copies of it are printed but no debate takes place. There will be a vote on whether the House wishes to consider the Bill further.


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