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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

Co
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It is important to understand the relationship between EU law and the domestic (national) law of the EU member states. This is guided by a number of important principles.

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Table 3 summarises the main aspects of Part D.

## Table 3 Types of law and their effects

<
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These have no binding force and therefore are ineffective as Community law. However, they can have ‘persuasive authority’. If a recommendation or opinion is ignored, it may later be followed up with a stronger legislative initiative, such as a decision or directive.

## Activity 4 The EU lawAuthor(s): The Open UniversityLicense informationRelated contentCopyright Â© 2016 The Open University

Negative numbers occur in financial matters, in temperature or height measurements and many other practical situations.

## Example 26

• (a) If the value of a painting increases by £20 a year and it is worth £200 today, how much will it be wort
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For example, to find 8 + 3 start at 8 and move 3 units to the right. giving 8 + 3 = 11. Adding a positive number means moving to the right along the number line.

Another wa
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Before considering division of fractions, it is helpful to think about division of whole numbers.

6 ÷ 2 asks for the number of twos in 6: 6 ÷ 2 = 3, since three twos are six (3 × 2 = 6).

In a similar way, 6 ÷ Author(s): The Open University

## Activity 38

Evaluate each of the following:

• (a) 7.9 ×0.8

• (b) 82.3 × 40

• (c) 7.20 ÷ 0.8

• (d) 62.30 ÷ 40

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## Activity 31

Insert brackets in the following calculations to emphasise the order in which a scientific calculator would perform them, then do the calculations by hand and on your calculator, with and without the bracke
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## Activity 30

Carry out the following calculations, without your calculator.

• (a) 3 × (60 + 70).

• (b) (3 × 60) + 70.

• (c) (70 − 60) ÷ 5.

• Author(s): The Open University

Although you may have a calculator at your disposal, you need to be able to carry out some calculations (usually with simpler numbers) in order to check your calculator work. Actually handling numbers, on paper or in your head, helps you to understand the nature of the calculations you perform on your calculator and gives you a deeper understanding of the underlying mathematical processes. In some cases, it really is quicker and easier to carry out a calculation by hand rather than key it int
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A great advantage of the metric system of units is that conversion between units within the system is particularly easy. For example, ‘£1 is worth 100p’ is converting one pound into pence. To convert pounds to pence, you multiply by 100. So £2 is 200p, and £2.63 is 263p. (Remember that to multiply by 100, you move the digits two places to the left in the place value table.)

To convert from pence to pounds, you need to reverse this process, i.e. to divide by 100 (moving the
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Numbers are used to specify a quantity or amount. For example, people give their ages as a number of years: ‘I am 51 years old’ or ‘I am five and a half’. Votes in elections may be described in thousands. Temperatures are measured in positive and negative degrees Celsius. Numbers smaller than one may be expressed as fractions or decimals. This section considers whole numbers, decimals, fractions and negative numbers and reminds you of the essence of a number – how ‘big’ it is.
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This free course provided an introduction to studying Mathematics. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.

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## Activity 2 Boxplots of family sizes

The table below contains data on the sizes (numbers of children) of the completed families of two samples of mothers in Ontario. One sample of mothers had had fewer years of educatio
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There is another kind of symmetry which is often used in designs. It can be seen, for instance, in a car wheel trim. Look at the trim on the left. It does not have line symmetry but
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Another useful property to remember is that one complete turn is 360°. This means that when there are several angles making up a complete turn, the sum of those angles must be 360°.

For instance, if the angles turned by a Big Wheel at a fairground as it picks up passengers were α, β, γ and δ as shown in the diagram below, then α + β + γ + δ = 360°.

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The modulus function provides us with a measure of distance that turns the set of complex numbers into a metric space in much the same way as does the modulus function defined on R. From the point of view of analysis the importance of this is that we can talk of the closeness of two complex numbers. We can then define the limit of a sequence of complex numbers in a way which is almost identical to the definition of the limit of a real sequence. Another analogue of real analysis arises
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In Section 4 we introduce the hyperbolic functions sinh, cosh and tanh, which are constructed from exponential functions. These hyperbolic functions share some of the properties of the trigonometric functions but, as you will see, their graphs are very different.

Click the link below to open Section 4 (5 pages, 104KB).

Section 4
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Surface water
Water is arguably the most important physical resource as it is the one that is essential to human survival. Understanding the global water cycle and how we use water is essential to planning a sustainable source of water for the future. In the UK there are areas where water supplies are limited, as shown by recent droughts. Globally, there are many areas that do not have enough water to support the current population adequately. Decisions will have to be made on the best way to use water in a w
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Type of lawEffect