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5.13.4 Pitches of notes produced by percussion instruments

We have seen that none of the rectangular bar, the circular membrane and the circular plate have harmonically related natural frequencies. It may not surprise you to learn, therefore, that instruments containing these primary vibrators tend to produce notes that don't have a very well-defined sense of pitch.

This is certainly true in the case of the cymbal, which has a circular plate as its primary vibrator. Whether a single cymbal is struck with a drumstick or two cymbals are crashed t
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8.2 Octave pitch and frequency increments

Because a doubling of frequency corresponds to an octave increase of pitch, it follows that there is no constant increment of frequency that always corresponds to a one-octave increment of pitch. That is to say, there is no fixed amount by which a frequency can be augmented that will always produce a one-octave pitch rise.

For instance, starting at the pitch A4 with a frequency of 440 Hz, we need to augment the frequency by 440 Hz to get the pitch one octave above (880 Hz). B
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • appreciate diagrams as a powerful aid to thinking and acting

  • distinguish between systems diagrams and diagrams helpful in systems work

  • demonstrate sufficient skills to ‘read’ and ‘draw’ a wide range of diagrams, following given conventions, that help improve an understanding of a situation

  • select diagrams suited to the needs of the situation being investigated and the purposes
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1.7 Conclusions

Could both of these students have got more from their involvement with the course if they had taken time to reflect on their goals and their strengths and weaknesses, especially at the beginning of study? Alan, whose reaction to the course was positive, for example, could have learned more about how the course succeeded if he had reflected rather more in the beginning about his initial scepticism and his preference for communicating verbally rather than in writing. What was the reason for his
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9.2 Cultural shifts: from Enlightenment to Romanticism, c.1780–1830

  1. A growing impulse towards revolution, rupture, transformation and radicalism.

  2. A growing scepticism about the potential to identify objective, empirically validated and universally valid truths, and an increased emphasis on subjectivity.

  3. An increasing emphasis on the self, introspection, identity and individualism.

  4. A growing exploitation and intensification of an aesthetic of the sublime.

  5. A growing a
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1.2 Doctor Faustus

Critics who have studied Marlowe's work have for the most part been inclined to take on trust the picture of him provided by Kyd, Baines, Beard and others, and to read the plays as statements of the author's own radical beliefs. But there is an obvious problem with this approach to Marlowe's work: we simply don't know whether these hostile accounts of his opinions are accurate or, as seems likely, deeply compromised by their writers' own motives and circumstances.

Doctor Faustus
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2.6 Centre and periphery

Here you have considered some of the ways in which the power and authority of the emperor were communicated to the inhabitants of the empire. The full dynamics of the relationship are difficult to reconstruct especially as the view gained is mainly from Rome looking out to the provinces rather than vice versa. It was important for the emperor to appear to be a competent ruler of the empire. It was one method used by his peers and successors to evaluate an emperor's reign. But it is often diff
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3.1 An introduction to gamelan music

The previous section introduced you to a music tradition which places great demands on the inventiveness and virtuosity of a single individual. Although this individual is supported by accompanists, it is to a large extent a soloistic music. We will now move on to a very different kind of music, in a tradition which places more emphasis on group interaction and ensemble playing. This is gamelan music of Sunda, an area comprising roughly the western third of the island of Java, in Indon
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1.2 Different perspectives on the creation of music

If a simple division into composition and improvisation is not going to be adequate, particularly when considering music beyond the Western art tradition, then what can we usefully say about the different ways in which music is created? A starting point might be to remind ourselves of the similarities between composition and improvisation. Both the improviser and the composer create music. Both of them, in doing so, draw on a range of skills and experience: their musical training and k
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Introduction to financial services
This free course, Introduction to financial services, examines the history of the development of financial services in the UK and the ways in which the sector is regulated. It will help you to understand how financial crises affect the UK and most other major economies and the consequences for the sector. First published on Wed, 18 May 2011
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Conversations and interviews
This free course, Conversations and interviews, explores how to ask and answer questions in interviews and conversations. First published on Thu, 11 Feb 2016 as Conversations and interviews. To find out more vis
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5.4 Activity 8

Activity 8

The M & S case study illustrates the importance of managing relationships. Having read it, try to answer the following questions.

  • On which value discipline has the com
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6.4 Blogs

The founder of Technorati claims that the number of 'blogs' doubles every five months and that the creation rate is approaching two per second. One estimate I read in July 2010 put the number at 400 million blogs. Because these online diaries offer instant publishing opportunities, you potentially have access to a wealth of knowledge from commentators and experts (if they blog) in a wi
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3.9 Choosing the right tool for the job

Before searching it is always a good idea to check what the source you have chosen covers to make sure it will unearth information that matches your search need (you will notice that all the resources we've covered in this guide have short descriptions to enable you to decide which to use). Some of the decision makers, depending on the context of your search might be:

  • Does it have full text?

  • Does it cover the right subject?

  • <
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to choose from on a range of subjects. 

Find out more
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • demonstrate an understanding of the strategic importance of communications in a competitive environment.


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Introduction

Strategy is based on the unique relationship between an organisation's distinctive resources and capabilities and its environment. This relationship is defined as ‘strategic fit’ and is seen as a dynamic relationship where the organisation does not merely respond to its environment but seeks to shape it.

Organisations do not exist in a vacuum: they rely on and reflect the political, economic and social contexts within which they operate. These will include:

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Introduction

This course will help you understand how it is possible to meet the needs of a particular minority community – the Chinese who live in Northern Ireland. The audio clips will give you an opportunity to listen to some first hand experiences and discover some of the problems that this community are facing. You will also hear about the needs of the community in terms of care and support, particularly in terms of meeting the needs of older Chinese inhabitants.

The audio file was recorded i
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Introduction

This unit introduces some of the main themes and issues in discourse analysis. To do this, it looks at extracts from the late Princess Diana interview screened on Panorama in 1995. The interview not only broke the conventions for British Royal appearances, but also reshaped the usual boundaries between public and private for the Royal family. While the focus here may be on Diana's words, the unit is not in itself concerned with the Diana phenomenon. And while some of the points discour
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