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Stage 4: Generation of routes to objectives (how could we get there?)

This stage explores the different ways of achieving the defined objectives. It is the most imaginative and free-thinking stage of the approach. The idea is initially to generate as many ideas as possible, then to whittle the list down to two or three ‘definite possibilities’ that can be carried further in the development stage.


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1.8 Increasing complication, complexity and risk: are systems becoming more complex?

Figure 17 shows the evolution of two commonly encountered applications of systems – for personal transport and for the reproduction of recorded music. In both cases the degree of complexity of the systems application has increased over time. One of the main reasons for this is technology
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1.1 Introduction: what is the problem?

In late June and early July 2005 a row erupted concerning the operation of a major flagship of government social policy, the tax credit system. Introduced in 2003, it was designed to help those on low incomes and whose social circumstances prevented them from working full-time (Citizens Advice Bureau, 2005). The article reprinted in Box 1 indicates the extent of the political unrest with a system that left families relying on food parcels, and that has been variously described as being ‘in
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References

IEC 60793-2-10 (1992) International Standard 60793-2-10 Optical Fibres – Part 2-10: Product Specifications – Sectional specification for category A1 multimode fibres, International Electrotechnical Commission.
IEC 60793-2-50 (1992) International Standard 60793-2-10 Optical Fibres – Part 2-;50: Product Specifications – Sectional specification for category B single mode fibres, International Electr
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4.4 Fibre in the access network

In the 1980s there was a belief that it was only a matter of time before fibre would be installed in the access network (from individual private customers to the local telephone exchange, also called ‘the last mile’, the ‘local loop’ and, now, the ‘first mile’). Installing ‘fibre to the home’, FTTH, as this has come to be known, was always recognised to be a major undertaking, simply because of the number of links involved. If, however, the revenue from new services enabled by
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4.3 Optical networking

DWDM improves the utilisation of optical fibre for point-to-point links, but a further step in exploiting the potential of optical fibre comes from optical networking in which routeing or switching is done optically.

Optical networking is in its infancy, but the concept of the optical layer based upon wavelength channels is emerging. The optical layer effectively sits below the SDH layer in the network, and provides wavelength channels from one location to another.

An analogy can
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6.2 Experiencing complexity as mess or difficulty

In this section, I want to take the ideas of mess and difficulty and explore them in the context of complexity. I want to determine how these ideas are connected, how significant the connections are and what the differences illuminate. I shall draw on the ideas of three writers: Schön, whose central theme is practice (e.g. Schön, 1983; 1987); Ackoff, who explores the characteristics of mess; and Rosenhead, who shows how different approaches to practice may be contrasted in terms that illumi
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6 Conclusion

I hope you have found it interesting to look at the various plays I have discussed in this unit, not only because they are entertaining but, mainly, because they are instructive and, often, quite compact. What plays can do is to stimulate your own emotions, which, as I argued in the unit, is a powerful beginning to ethical reasoning. Drama provides ready-made analogues for exploring experiences, often experiences that you have not had but also experiences you might face yourself. The skilful
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5.6 Identification

We end Act 1 with a clear understanding that it is actually too late for Ned to pull out, even if he wanted to: the weapon has been designed. If he were concerned about the military technology, he should really have worried about that before he took on the job. But he does not, at the end of Act 1, want to pull out. He clearly wants to see the project through. Materialising this idea is what he lives for, and he says this is at the cutting edge, this is where technology is. These ideas are go
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2.4 Relationships and conduct

Socratic dialogues tend to involve Socrates and just one significant interlocutor at a time. In practice, we have networks of relationships, all of which we value in different ways and which are sustained by conversations that extend over different and long sequences of encounters. Crucially, the actions we take and the conversations we have change those relationships and the value we attribute to them. Therefore, ‘relationships’ constitute yet another thing that we need to look at, somet
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4.1 Background to Vue

This section discusses one of four video case studies used in the T883 course to illustrate some basic concepts of operations management covered by the course.

Vue Entertainment is a relatively young organisation, formed in 2003 with the acquisition of 36 cinemas from the Warner Village chain. At the time of writing (October 2007) it currently operates 579 screens and 130,585 seats over 59 cinemas. It sees its approach as firmly based upon its desire to consistently provide ‘the best
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8.4.1 Open-loop control

Open-loop is the crudest way of controlling etch depth. It relies on ensuring that every aspect of the process that can affect the rate of progress of the etch is kept under tight control. This can add up to a sizeable list. Table 5 shows just some parameters that affect both wet and dry etching.

Whether
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7.3.4 Physical vapour deposition (PVD), sputtering

An ion hitting a metal surface after acceleration through more than 100 V will not stick or bounce off but will burrow into the surface, splashing atoms outwards. This is known as sputtering and provides a versatile alternative to thermal evaporation for metal-vapour deposition: more controllable, with adjustable uniformity, able to cope with alloys and high-melting-point metals and suitable for production-line automation. Given these advantages, it is also worth the effort to heat the
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Introduction

This unit focuses on the Forth Road Bridge that connects Edinburgh with Fife. This suspension bridge continues to face a number of problems regarding its deteriorating condition. The short video included in this unit illustrates some of the major structural issues facing bridges and examines some of the proposed changes to the use of the Forth Road Bridge to help increase its lifespan.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Author(s): The Open University

4 Unit summary

Sound recording really took off once the public's demand for recorded music had been acknowledged. The choice of technology, cylinder or disc, was determined more by the selection of the artist and material than the quality of the sound. Development of disc technology was slow due to the lack of better alternatives, remaining substantially unchanged for over fifty years. The development of radio broadcasting caused a slump in the record industry but eventually it not only provided improvement
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3.1 Introduction

I've an opera here you shan't escape – on miles and miles of recording tape.

Flanders, M. and Swann, D. (1977) ‘The Song of Reproduction’ from The Songs of Michael Flanders and Donald Swann, London, Elm Tree Books and St George's Press, p. 99

Sounds, pictures, measurement data, financial statistics, personal details, etc. can all be recorded and stored on magnetic media, i.e. m
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2.7 Music matters

There was little difference in sound quality between the phonograph cylinder and the gramophone disc. The limited frequency response of the acoustic recording and playback process restricted the sounds that could be reproduced. Instruments tended to be limited to brass and piano, and middle-register voices (alto and tenor) were the most suitable. So why did the disc succeed over the cylinder? The answer has little to do with technology and much more to do with the tenor Enrico Caruso and the
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2.1 Edison starts with cylinders

I had a little gramophone; I'd wind it round and round, and with a sharpish needle it made a cheerful sound.

Flanders, M. and Swann, D. (1977) ‘The Song of Reproduction’ from The Songs of Michael Flanders and Donald Swann, London, Elm Tree Books and St George's Press, p. 99

In 1877 the young American inventor Thomas Alva Edison finally completed development of an invention capable of ca
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1 Capturing sound

Have you ever listened carefully to a recording of your own voice?

In this first activity, I want you to make a short recording of your voice.

Activity 1 (Optional)

Note: This optional activity requires the use of a
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