As this history might suggest, defining and conceptualising rights is not straightforward. This section aims to provide a working definition of â€˜rightsâ€™ and introduce some important debates about rights. It aims to supply some conceptual tools to use when the discussion moves to the sphere of international politics.

Author(s): The Open University

Although I have dwelt on the agreements relating to agriculture, textiles, and intellectual property, there are some two dozen others, each involving intricate legal and technical details. These include agreements on:

• Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures: these are standards applied to imported agricultural products so as to protect plants, animals and humans in the importing country. However, these standards are often arbitrarily used to restric
Author(s): The Open University

In this activity you will be challenged to reinterpret the following programme extracted from the Powerdown Show DVD: Energy Descent Pathways. The reason this programme was selected, from the many audio-visual programmes currently available online that tackle environmental and social issues, was because it presents an "ecotopian" approach to tackling the converging social, economic and environmental crises. Your challen
Author(s): The Open University

When you looked at the title of this reading, did you experience unease? Most people shudder at the thought of dealing with anything mathematical, remembering the torturous lessons at school trying to grapple with calculus, statistics and logic. Yet most of us use mathematical com
Author(s): The Open University

2.5 Visual communication

As discussed in Reading 2.4, written text has major limitations in representing relationships between things when they do not follow the linear structure of the text. Relationships can be extremely complex, even circular, as you will see in this block. In particular, the linear sequence of text is not able to clearly show context, elements, structure, processes and functions of
Author(s): The Open University

4.3.3 Getting at the activation energy

The final trick I want to show you with Arrhenius's law is how to extract the constants rï»¿0 and Eï»¿a from experimental data. If the Arrhenius equation (Section 4.3.1) is â€˜turned inside outâ€™ by taking natural logarithms of both sides it becomes:

Author(s): The Open University

4.2.3 The significance of the distribution of energies

Near room temperature (300 K), the average bundle of thermal energy associated with a particle is 0.026 eV (look back at Box 2 Temperature and energy). This is not going to do much damage to something stuck together with bonds that have an energy of a few eV â€“ just as the average wage earne
Author(s): The Open University

2.1 Boiling water

Whether it's to wash clothes, make a cup of tea, or just make it safe to drink, water often has to be heated â€“ sometimes to boiling point. There are many ways to do this, but a very common means is some form of electric water-boiler, such as a kettle or an urn. In all but the crudest ones, a device is fitted to ensure that heating does not continue once the boiling point of water is reached.

In deciding on the type and design of such a device, we can suppose that a company manufacturi
Author(s): The Open University

Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

• relate the temperature of a solid to the mean kinetic energy of its atoms;

• use models for thermally induced effects that involve linear, exponential and step changes;

• use exponentials, logarithms and graphical methods to interpret data from a thermally activated process in terms of Arrhenius's law;

• identify the changes of phase taking place in a variety of critical phenomena;

• Author(s): The Open University

5.7 Bibliographic software

If you are considering taking your studies further you might like to consider using bibliographic software. Bibliographic software can be used to sort references, annotate them, manage quotations or create reading lists.

There are several software packages on the market. Some are listed below.

3.2.7 Ways that groups go wrong

Before leaving Reading 2, it is worth mentioning some of the characteristic ways that groups â€˜go wrongâ€™. Why should a group, asked to design a camel, produce a horse? You might expect that when we pool the talents, experience and knowledge of a group, the result would be better, not worse, than that of any individual member. But as groups design â€˜horsesâ€™ so frequently there must be some fairly familiar decision-making processes at work. Probably the most common problems are those that
Author(s): The Open University

3.2 Group processes

So far, the emphasis has been on the factors that are significant in the relationship between an individual and the group. In this section I examine such issues as what tasks the group has to perform, how big the group is, who should be in it, how the group develops and so on. These are particularly important issues in the operation of formal groups within the organisation. These factors, mostly associated with the â€˜environmentâ€™ of the group, can be critical in determining how effective a
Author(s): The Open University

2.8 Why do (only some) teams succeed?

Clearly, it is not possible to devise a set of rules which, if followed, would lead inexorably to team effectiveness. The determinants of a successful team are complex and not equivalent to following a set of prescriptions. However, the results of poor teamworking can be expensive, so it is useful to draw on research, experience and case studies to explore some general guidelines. What do I mean by â€˜team effectiveness'? â€“ the achievement of goals alone? Where do the achievements of indivi
Author(s): The Open University

2.1 What is a group?

Our tendency to form groups is a pervasive aspect of organisational life. As well as formal groups, committees and teams, there are informal groups, cliques and cabals.

Formal groups are used to organise and distribute work, pool information, devise plans, coordinate activities, increase commitment, negotiate, resolve conflicts and conduct inquests. Group working allows the pooling of people's individual skills and knowledge, and helps compensate for individual deficiencies. It has been
Author(s): The Open University

6.5 Market experience

It is some 20 years since the Topper project was conceived by Peter Bean, Technical Director of Rolinx and Ian Proctor, the designer of the original GRP boat. Sales initially were excellent, especially to sailing schools and clubs where there was much demand for a small, light and very safe sailing boat for children. But after that, the market became saturated, sales were heavily dependant on individuals and families, so decreased despite attempts to export the boat to the USA and Israel, for
Author(s): The Open University

6.3 Materials selection

Good design fulfils the product specification under the required service conditions as well as contributing to the cost effectiveness of its manufacture and maintenance. The product specification itself must be an interpretation of the market needs. Hence good design means giving product appeal at the point of sale. Selecting the polymer is just one stage in this design exercise, both in terms of information on various properties of materials, as well as the detailed evaluation and selection
Author(s): The Open University

4.6.2 Material costs in manufacturing

For high added-value products like boats and cars, material costs form a relatively small proportion of total costs. For directly manufactured products, however, which are sold without much assembly or finishing, material costs do form a relatively large proportion of the total production cost. This applies particularly to polymeric containers for foods and drinks but not, for example, to containers for more sophisticated products like electronic or electrical goods. What is much more importa
Author(s): The Open University

3.3.3 Higher aromatics

Benzene rings can be fused in various ways to create component parts for some of the complex aromatic repeat units shown in Table 5. One of the most important is bisphenol A, made by fusing two phenol rings with acetone:

Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

Polymers are materials composed of long molecular chains that are well-accepted for a wide variety of applications. This unit explores these materials in terms of their chemical composition, associated properties and processes of manufacture from petrochemicals. The unit also shows a range of products in which polymers are used and explains why they are chosen in preference to many conventional materials.

This unit is from our archive and it is an adapted extract from Design and ma
Author(s): The Open University

Learning outcomes

After working through these materials you should be able to:

• describe and use a general classification of models;

• outline and discuss the process of systems modelling, where models are used as part of a systemic approach to a range of different situations;

• recognise that systems models may be used in different ways as part of a process for: improving understanding of a situation; identifying problems or formulating opportunities; supporting decision
Author(s): The Open University