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2 A day in the life of a hospital ward

In 1996, we visited Ward 29, one of two gastroenterology wards in the medical unit, and recorded the views of patients and staff. The ward has 24 beds. Its patients were women and men, across a wide age range, suffering from digestive disorders – for example, stomach ulcers, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, cancers of the digestive system or problems with liver function brought on by alcohol abuse. Because it was winter the ward had more elderly people than it would have at other times
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1.6.2 Assessing risk

Dev Sharma’s arrival at the Durrants’ home, following an incident involving a knife, is an example of an ambiguous situation. The morning after the incident he has to visit the Durrants, having received a telephone call from the home carer, reporting a claim by Arthur that his daughter, who has learning difficulties, has threatened him with a knife. Dev has to initiate a risk assessment. But what exactly happened and how should he set about his duties?

As a social worker Dev
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1.5.5 The modern day relationship

However, things have been changing since Stein outlined the doctor-nurse game. A more recent study in Sweden reported that:

In our investigation, the nurses who had been working for 15–20 years often emphasised that it was during the past 8–10 years that marked changes had occurred in their interplay with doctors. Relations in former times are described in terms such as: ‘one had to stand on tiptoe’, ‘the
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Planning an evaluation

The evaluation should have clear aims and objectives. It is also helpful to decide where its boundaries should lie – how much or how little is to be evaluated?

Activity 4

0 hours 20 minutes

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2.1 When is someone an informal carer?

Figure 2
Who are informal carers?

Section 1 explores what is meant by t
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Introduction

Care is needed at all stages of life. This course makes care in the family its focus because the overwhelming majority of care, including health care, is supplied in families, much of it in private, much of it unnoticed and unremarked upon. The meaning of the term (informal carer) and the word (care) itself are explored.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 1 study in Author(s): The Open University

Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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6.6 A few final thoughts

This final section has concentrated on the heart, the lungs and the blood – the body's cardio-respiratory system. We saw briefly how the body takes oxygen in through the lungs, and discussed the importance of this for athletes in various sports. To understand the role of oxygen in the body and its importance to athletes, we had to draw on information that we had discussed in earlier sections about the way oxygen is carried in the blood and the way that the heart pumps blood to different par
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6.4 Athletes and oxygen intake

In Section 4.4, we ranked a group of athletes in terms of heart rate. Now let us consider the same athletes in the same sports, but from the point of view of how efficient their respiratory system needs to be to perform in their chosen sports.


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6.2 The body, the lungs and oxygen

The figure shows a simple image of how the lungs absorb oxygen from the air.

Figure 11
Figu
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6.1 Introduction

We have learnt that part of the reason the heart pumps blood around is to make sure that the body gets a fresh supply of oxygen. So in the same way that our hearts need to keep beating, we need to keep breathing oxygen into our lungs to survive. But what is the function of oxygen? Why does our body need oxygen, and what does it do with it once we have breathed it in? These are some of the questions that we will examine in first part of this section.

In the second part of this section, w
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5.6 A few final thoughts

You will have seen from this section that it is difficult to talk about the heart without also talking about blood and veins and arteries. It is hard to isolate one body system or one body part and describe it by itself, without talking about other parts of the body as well. One of the important points that we would like you to remember about the biology of the human body is that everything is interlinked. An athlete hoping to maximise their performance in a sport has to work on all pa
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5.5 What is blood?

So, having learned about how blood moves around the body, let's now look at what it's made up of and therefore why we need it at all, and why its health has an effect on sporting performance.

Blood has four main components – three types of cell and the watery liquid that holds these cells. Briefly, these four components are:

  • Red blood cells these cells give blood its characteristic colour. They make up about seven per cent of blood and th
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5.4 Finding your own arteries and veins

Figure 10
Figure 10 A forearm showing veins – a neck showing carotid arter
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5.3 Blood vessels: veins, arteries and capillaries

The tubes that carry blood around the body can be loosely divided into two types, arteries and veins. Arteries are the tubes that take blood away from the heart. They tend to be quite large, at least a few millimetres in diameter. Veins are the tubes that carry the blood back to the heart and these are usually narrower than the arteries.


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5.2 Two halves of one pumping system

The heart pumps blood around the body. That might seem obvious, and you might think that there must be more to it than that, but there isn't. That is all that it does. However, this is a crucially important job.

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