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2 Britain and the French Revolution

In Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) Edmund Burke (1729–97) made clear his hostile reaction to the Revolution, which he perceived as a dangerous destruction of tradition and continuity in favour of abstract Enlightenment principles. On the other hand, there was a substantial cross-section of British opinion that initially warmly welcomed the Revolution, including Wilberforce himself, as well as much more radical individuals, such as Thomas Paine (1737–1809).

Init
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1.3 Wilberforce’s ‘Conversion’ to Evangelicalism

Wilberforce’s religious ‘conversion’ in 1785 was profound but not instantaneous. Through the influence of Isaac Milner, an Evangelical clergyman who was his companion on extended journeys on the Continent, he first became intellectually convinced of the truth of Christian doctrines that he had doubted in the early 1780s. This process of rational argument, study and consideration was characteristic of an Enlightenment way of thinking, even if the conclusion was diametrically opposed to t
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand the key aspects of William Wilberforce’s political career and writings, and have an appreciation of their historical and religious significance

  • demonstrate an awareness of the relationship of Evangelicalism to cultural transitions between the Enlightenment and Romanticism

  • understand the contribution of religion to cultural, social and political change in Britain in the years after the F
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Acknowledgements

This course was written by Dr Debbie Brunton.

This free course is an adapted extract from the course A218 Medicine and Society in Europe, 1500–1930, which is currently out of presentation

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References

Barker-Benfield, G.J. (1992) The Culture of Sensibility: Sex and Society in Eighteenth-Century Britain, Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press.
Jackson, S.W. (1970) ‘Force and kindred notions in eighteenth-century neurophysiology and medical psychology’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol. 44, pp. 397–410, 539–54.
Lawrence, C. (1979) ‘The
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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6 Rhyme

Activity 17

Now listen to Track 4, on which Jackie Kay and Paul Muldoon talk about rhyme.

Click below to listen to track 4.

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7 Matching form and purpose

Now let us look at war memorials themselves. We have already agreed that their form takes a shape that we think appropriate. The question to ask is: Why do we think that one building, one shape, is more appropriate than another?

Exercise 7


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3.3.1 The geography of the Classical world

We would now like to give you the opportunity to gain some background knowledge of places and regions in the Classical world. The aim is to give you a grasp of this geography so that as you learn more about the Classical world, you will be able to locate the places you study and put them in relation to one another without having to consult a map all the time.

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2.6 Books and the internet as sources

Finally, let's come back to the different types of modern sources as indicated in Figure 1. Many of these types are familiar to you in one way or another, so we can be brief. The course A219 uses set books that students registered with the Open University are required to purchase. Three of them are clearly modern scholarship:
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3.4 The misuse of the concept of positive liberty

One of the main claims that Berlin makes in ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’ is a historical one. It is that positive theories of freedom, or perversions of them, have been more frequently used as instruments of oppression than have negative ones. These positive theories typically rely on a split between a ‘higher’ and a ‘lower’ self, or between a ‘rational’ and an ‘empirical’ self as Berlin sometimes puts it. Coercion is justified on the grounds that it leads to a realisation of
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3.3 Positive freedom

Positive freedom is a more difficult notion to grasp than negative. Put simply it is freedom to do something rather than freedom from interference. Negative freedom is simply a matter of the number and kind of options that lie open for you and their relevance for your life; it is a matter of what you aren't prevented from doing; the doors that lie unlocked. Positive freedom, in contrast, is a matter of what you can actually do. All sorts of doors may be open, giving you a large
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References

Goodman, M. (1997) The Roman World, 44 BC–AD 180, London and New York, Routledge, Routledge History of the Ancient World.
Nicolet, C. (1991) Geography, Space and Politics in the Early Roman Empire, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.
Grant, M. (trans.) (1996) Tacitus: the Annals of Imperial Rome, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books. (First published 1956.
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2.2 Personal contact

Remember that although the city was important to him the emperor did not have to pass all his time in Rome, and many emperors visited other parts of the empire. Such mobility was often associated with military campaigns. For instance, there were a significant number of campaigns undertaken during the reign of Augustus, and these were generally headed by the emperor or members of his family. Emperors such as Gaius, Claudius, Domitian, Trajan and Marcus Aurelius also campaigned on the edges of
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • demonstrate an awareness of the problems related to evidence for supporting claims on ‘ordinary’ people’s attitudes

  • demonstrate an awareness of popular responses to the South African War (1899-1902)

  • understand attitudes to imperialism held by Americans.


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Private equity, venture capital, stock exchange listing: all are methods of raising equity finance. This free course looks at the processes used and the markets available across the world for raising such finance, as well as looking into the reasons why some companies choose cross-listing on stock exchanges. First published on Tue, 12 Jul 2011 as Author(s): Creator not set

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