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Preparing a project
Managing projects is something most managers will find themselves doing at some point in their career. This free course, Preparing a project, aims to provide an overview of the features of a project and the issues that arise in managing a project. First published on Thu, 21 Jul 2011 as Author(s): Creator not set

Managing and managing people
This free course, Managing and managing people, will introduce you to the world of management. We will be looking at a range of topics, including what managers do, what skills they require, and how you can develop as a manager. First published on Tue, 07 May 2019 as Author(s): Creator not set

Facilitating group discussions
Gain an insight into facilitating meetings and discussions in the workplace. In this free course, Facilitating group discussions, you will look at some of the behaviours effective facilitators exhibit. Informative and engaging videos will introduce you to examples of facilitation in practice. First published on Wed, 08 May 2019 as Author(s): Creator not set

Stakeholders in marketing and finance
This free course, Stakeholders in marketing and finance, comprises two sections introducing the idea of customers and stakeholders for financial information. It also contains two activities in which learners are asked to relate the ideas discussed to their own work practice. None.
First published on Wed, 29 May 2019 as Author(s):
None

The role of the manager
This free course, The role of the manager, examines the manager role in theory and in practice. You will begin by considering two classic theories on the role of the manager, written about in The Manager's Good Study Guide, to assess how relevant they are for your current work. You will then be asked to examine the work of managers in a range of other organisations using video excerpts from the BBC World News series Escape from the Boardroom. Author(s): Creator not set

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Social marketing
Never before have social issues been more at the centre of public and private debate. From concerns about sustainability and the future of the planet to the introduction of smoking bans, there is a growing recognition that social marketing has a role to play in achieving a wide range of social goals. This free course, Social marketing, examines the nature of social marketing and how the adoption of marketing concepts, frameworks and techniques developed for commercial marketers can be applied to
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4.13.2 Example: an ‘intelligent’ email system

Let us work through an email example of making a system ‘smarter’. We are all familiar with the standardised fields in an email system: From, To, Subject. The computer needs the To/From information, expressed in a standard format, to direct the message to its addressees and allow them to reply. It has no concept of who the sender and recipient are, or what the Subject field means. We can imagine simple knowledge-level email categories which add status information to t
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4.5 Technologies and the tacit dimension

In this unit we have discussed the intriguing notion of tacit knowledge, or perhaps better, knowing as a situated process. What might it mean to provide technological support which exploits the tacit dimension? If ‘tacit’ can mean ‘not yet codified, but could be’ in Nonaka and Takeuchi's (1995) sense, then we can devise computer systems that assist in formalising information and ‘transforming’ it into explicit, shared knowledge to feed the knowledge spiral. However, if ‘t
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2.4.1 From Heidegger to knowledge technologies

Because each transformation from one ‘knowledge state’ to another (Figure 2) is an act of interpretation, there is no such thing as objective knowledge representation, or indeed objective classification or codification of any sort (in software or any other medium): there is always a viewpoint. This leads to the view that information and communication systems cannot be thought of as neutral; in their formal structures and operations they embody the goals and perspectives of their developer
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2.1 Representation, interpretation and communities of practice

Let us start with a thought experiment.

Activity 2.1

  • Where is the music?

  • The music is in the musical notation.

  • No, the music is in the
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1.1 ‘Technology’?

In knowledge management literature the term ‘technology’ is assumed to mean digital media and networks: software and hardware that comprise today's ICTs. However, it is important to remember that pens and paper are forms of technology, along with whiteboards, sticky notes, and the other non-digital media that make up the infrastructure of our daily lives at work. These are not about to disappear: paper is robust and portable, text on paper is easily read and annotated, and most organisati
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1.5 The problem of power: policy as political

The plural polity that characterises contemporary policy making means that many stakeholders are involved in the policy-action relationship dynamic, from commercial firms, public and non-profit organisations, the professions, central and local government, service delivery organisations, trade unions and the media, to organised groups of the public itself. Viewing policy as political, then, does not mean simply focusing on politicians. Rather, it signifies adopting a stakeholder perspective in
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand the value of modelling the public policy–action relationship

  • explain the mechanical, organic, cultural and political models of the policy–action relationship.


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3.3.1 Japan

After the Second World War, the commander of the allied occupation of Japan (1945–52), General Douglas MacArthur, proclaimed in a September 1945 interview with the New York Times that ‘Japan will never again become a world power'; and, five years later, his economic experts advised that ‘the Japanese economy's best course in the postwar era would be to make “knickknacks” – their word – for underdeveloped countries’ (Fingleton, 1997, pp. 1–2). Today, Japan is a technol
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3.2 Institutions in flux

Although the implosion of the Soviet Union, after the dismantling of the Berlin Wall in 1989, has extended the flow of global capitalism, de Soto (2000) argues that the lack of capitalist institutions – and specifically legally enforceable rights to own property – has frustrated Western expectations about achieving increased prosperity through free-market economic development: ‘Ten years ago, few would have compared the former Soviet bloc nations to Latin America. But today they look as
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1.2 Aims

The aims of this course are:

  • to explore the processes that link local practices to global contexts;

  • to identify key dimensions of globalisation and explore its implications for knowing how to ‘do things’ in a variety of contexts;

  • to compare approaches to managing and organising, based on universally applicable principles, with context-specific rationalities;

  • to illustrate how viable interpretation
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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Conclusion

The aim of the first section was to introduce you to the concept of the market-led approach to marketing (also referred to as pan-company marketing or marketing orientation) and to differentiate it from ‘marketing department marketing’. I used examples and case studies to make you think about the applicability of this concept to commercial (for-profit) and non-profit organisations, and gave you activities to help you apply it in your own organisation.

Five of the learning outcomes w
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5.5 Relationships in your organisation

In this section I have introduced you to case studies and reading that should have helped you understand how market orientation affects an organisation's performance. I have also asked you to look at your own organisation and make judgements regarding its performance. Near the beginning of this session I asked you to consider some questions from Drucker (1992). I have added a few more questions to his list and ask you now to try to answer these questions for your organisation. You probably do
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2.4 Marketing as a management process

This last definition is the one that most modern marketing writers support. Piercy (1997) makes a distinction between ‘marketing plan marketing' – the activities that traditional marketing departments do – and the concept of ‘going to market’ – a much more general management issue. He writes:

‘Marketing’ belongs to marketing specialists but ‘going to market’ is a process owned by everyone in th
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