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4.3 Conclusion

If social researchers are to be effective in understanding people, they need to be detached from common sense (the perspective of the person on the street). However, they should not be so detached that they fall into the trap of imposing their own categories upon the object without regard for the experience of those involved (the perspective of the expert).

The standpoint of the ‘stranger’ provides a way of mediating between the detached position of the scientist and the personal ex
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Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlik
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4.4 Structural explanations II: families

Our second example of structural explanations of criminal behaviour takes a different starting point. It looks at pathological or problem families and the transmission of criminal careers within them. This work is most closely associated with the social-psychological research of David Farrington (1994).

Farrington's argument has two core components. First, he argues that criminal offending is part of a larger syndrome of anti-social behaviour. A syndrome is a medica
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Introduction

‘Tough on the causes of crime.’ A famous phrase, but what is crime? This unit examines how we as a ‘society’ define crime. You will look at the fear that is generated within communities and what evidence is available to support claims that are made about crime rates.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 1 study in Author(s): The Open University

Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • identify criteria to evaluate the politics of racial violence.


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4.1 Conclusion

Every era defines for itself its most pressing economic problems. They emerge from a complex public dialogue, involving ideas and experience, theories and political pressures. Economists influence and take part in that dialogue but they certainly do not control it. Are we living through a new industrial revolution powered by ICT? Should we be grateful to big companies such as Microsoft and Nike for their new products or try to curtail their power? Does more material well-being always make peo
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References

Barber, L. (1998) Demon Barber, London, Viking.
Barthes, R. (1977) Image-Music-Text (ed. and trans. S. Heath), London, Fontana.
Bonner, F. (2003) Ordinary Television, London, Sage.
Boorstin, D.J. (1961) The Image: Or What Happened to the American Dream, Harmondsworth, Penguin.
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3.5 Reactions and reflections

Activity 8

0 hours 15 minutes

3.2 By medium

We can divide texts up by the medium in which they appear. This is a broad division that is technologically based. It may seem excessively obvious, but it can be quite revealing. For example, different media have different periodicities (frequency of appearances) – most magazines appear weekly or monthly, while newspapers are weekly or daily. Episodes of television programmes are most commonly also weekly or daily, but films appear on a different basis altogether, since, like books or CDs t
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2.3 The representation of ‘celebrity’

We have already seen the way in which texts gain meaning from other texts by the operation of contrast, but multiple texts are useful to the textual analyst in another way. Looking at a large number of texts dealing with the same subject – celebrity – enables us to detect common themes and narratives (stories), to the extent that with enough repetition we become able to talk about the representation of that subject. Working through a large number of texts about celebrities, we beco
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1 Introduction and overview

This course is concerned with the very things that we, as ordinary people, talk about as a consequence of listening to radio, watching television or reading newspapers and magazines: the programmes and articles that constitute media output. We do not (except on rare occasions) experience celebrities face-to-face, as their celebrity is conditional on having their image disseminated far and wide. This course examines the everyday evidence of celebrity activity – what academic media ana
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Introduction

This course explores questions about New Labour's approach to welfare reconstruction. This is linked to the unsettling and remaking of the old Welfare State by the New Right. The material is primarily an audio file, originally 27 minutes in length, and recorded in 1999.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 2 study in Author(s): The Open University

9.1 What is a state machine?

An event is an occurrence of a phenomenon at a certain moment in time. The occurrence of the event itself is assumed to have no duration. Typically, when an event occurs, it affects the state of an object. A state machine is a model of the behaviour of a single object over time and helps you to understand how that object's state affects its reactions to events.

Figure 18 shows a state machine diagram (known as a statechart diagram in the UML) relating to the occupancy of a room in a hot
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4.1 What is a data flow diagram?

A data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical description of the ebb and flow of data in a given context. A DFD allows you to identify the transformations that take place on data as it moves from input to output in the system. (DFDs pre-date UML diagrams, but still have a complementary role to play in describing systems.)

The Case Study below provides an example of a DFD used to describe the Open University's eTMA system (electronic Tutor Marked Assignment system). It uses the
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1.4 Analysis

Data analysis begins with the statement of data requirements and then produces a conceptual data model. The aim of analysis is to obtain a detailed description of the data that will suit user requirements so that both high and low level properties of data and their use are dealt with. These include properties such as the possible range of values that can be permitted for attributes such as, in the Open University example for instance, the course code, course title and credit points.
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Childhood in crisis?
This free course, Childhood in crisis?, explores an idea much repeated in minority-world media that childhood is in crisis. Looking at this idea is a starting point for the study of childhood. You will consider the concept of childhood and the ways in which the notion of crisis may shape how children in the West are seen. By completing the activities, you will be introduced to different ways of understanding this idea and also asked to consider your own feelings in relation to it.Author(s): Creator not set

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Acknowledgements

Course image: aotaro in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions)
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5.2 Studying the materials

This is the period when you will be working on your course materials in preparation for the assignment. This may include working through written or electronic texts, any other associated reading or media components, possibly attending a tutorial, accessing any other information that you need and making notes or records of it. Some courses give you a lot of direct guidance on how to work through the course materials; others present you with a range of options and routes. Some courses, particul
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7.4 Evaluating your strategy and assessing your work

Present a reflective summary that gives details of:

  • A judgement of your own progress and performance in using problem-solving skills, including an assessment of your progress. Discuss your use of criteria and feedback comments to help you assess your progress.

  • Those factors that had the greatest effect on your achieving what you set out to do, including those that worked well to help you improve and those that worked less well.

  • <
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Languages. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance, and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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