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3.1.3 Option 3: Linking the diagrams to a case

This can be a very useful option. Rather than just using the diagram as a general example, you could pick on one or more specific diseases and discuss how they relate to the general picture. By doing this, you have undertaken some specific new learning and demonstrated that you have applied that new knowledge or understanding in a creative way. In this example, the diagram is not an appendage to the discussion, hanging out on a ‘limb’, but has been used as part of the central ‘body’ o
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2.2.2 Reading graphs and charts: manipulating numbers

Text is just one way of communicating information. Numbers are another way, but whether presented singly, in groups or even as tables , numbers often require a lot of work from the reader to uncover the message. A much more immediate and powerful way to present numerical information is to use graphs and charts. When you use single numbers or tables, the reader has to visualise the meaning of the numbers. Graphs and charts allow the reader to do this at a glance. To show how powerful these rep
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3.7.3 Fluency

Try to make your essays flow from one sentence to the next. As we have seen, this is partly a matter of structure and partly of signposting. It is vital to think of your essay in terms of its overall structure – to move points around, and cut and trim, in search of a clear sequence for your ideas. Then, having worked out a structure, you have to ‘talk’ your reader through it, emphasising the key turning points in the essay, summarising where you have got to, showing how ea
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3.3 Drawing on course material

Unless you are taking a course in creative writing, essays are generally meant to help you consolidate what you have been studying. You are not asked to answer the question in the title ‘off the top of your head’ nor on the basis of some prior knowledge. You are expected to take the essay as an opportunity to scan back over what you have been reading or doing and select relevant material from that. The tutor who marks your essay will already have in mind a range of course material that co
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3.1 A sharper focus

So far, we have been analysing essays in a practical way, looking at the strengths and weaknesses of some actual examples, rather than at formal rules or abstract ideas about essay-writing. Now, though, we need to summarise.

I suggest this because I think you already have a fairly good idea of what effective writing is. I don't think the point of a course like this is to tell you much that is devastatingly new. It is to bring into sharper focus what you ‘know’ already, and to help y
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2.6 How good are Philip's and Hansa's essays?

There are no absolute standards against which the quality of an essay can be judged. It depends on the course you are studying – its content and aims, and the level at which it is pitched. Your tutor will tell you how your essays stand within the context of your course. What we can do is outline the strengths and weaknesses of Philip's and Hansa's essays. In the second question of Author(s): The Open University

2.5.4. Choosing the right words and phrases

Both Philip and Hansa occasionally use words and phrases that don't really do the job they want. We saw, for instance, that Philip uses the word ‘resemblance’ when actually he means ‘contrast’. Here are some other examples from his writing.

Philip's words More accurate words
Paragraph 1
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1.1 Why write?

Of all aspects of studying, writing is probably the most challenging. That is because when you write down an account of your ideas for other people to read you have to explain yourself particularly carefully. You can't make the mental leaps you do when you are in conversation with others or thinking about something for yourself. To make your meaning clear, using only words on a page, you have to work out exactly what you think about the subject. You come to understand it for yourself i
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this supplement:

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Psychological research, obedience and ethics
In this free course, Psychological research, obedience and ethics, you will learn about the importance of ethics in research that is undertaken by psychologists. You will read about the famous study on obedience conducted by Stanley Milgram, and watch two psychologists talk about their research with meerkats and chimpanzees. First published o
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

3.2 Consciousness of the body

Phenomenological theorists distinguish between the subjective body (as lived and experienced) and the objective body (as observed and scientifically investigated). These are not two different bodies as such (phenomenologists pride themselves on overcoming dualisms!); rather they are different facets of our experience and consciousness.

The body-subject, or subjective body, is the body-as-it-is-lived. I do not simply possess a body; I am my body (Merleau-Ponty, 1962
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3.5.3 Single participant interventions

A single participant intervention study, studies the effects of an intervention in the case of one person, with the aim of establishing those elements of the intervention which would work with the majority of people. This is because the method assumes that in all important respects, all human beings are the same, and the effects of the intervention in one case should be the same in all cases. It is a method that belongs to objectivity.

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3.5.2 Pre-post test studies

Another method for evaluating the effectiveness of a therapy is to use a pre-post test design. This is where a group of people is assessed before and after a programme of intervention. Ideally, these people would be matched to a control group who are also tested twice, but do not receive the same (or any) intervention during that period. However, as with randomised controlled trials, there are ethical issues if it becomes clear that the intervention is having an adverse affect on the e
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2.7 Reflecting on explanations of ‘abnormal’ development: the case of dyslexia

We can draw the following general conclusions about cognitive and biological explanations of abnormality from the material presented above.

  • Both cognitive and biological accounts of dyslexia are offered as theories which explain the behavioural difficulties that are observed. While some theories may dominate accounts of a given condition (e.g. the phonological deficit hypothesis), and may result in influencing the nature of interventions, they are stil
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2.3.2 Why are boys more vulnerable to some conditions?

In some conditions that affect more males than females (such as colourblindness), the explanation has been found to lie in genes on the X chromosome. Most females have two X chromosomes (one inherited from each parent) while most males have an XY combination. This means that if someone should inherit an X-linked gene predisposing to a particular condition, compensation for this will be easier for a female (whose other X chromosome may have a ‘normal’ copy of the gene) than for a male. How
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2.2.3 ‘Automaticity’ and ‘rate of processing’ hypotheses

A proposal that attempts to address the broader picture of dyslexic functioning is that dyslexia may be caused by problems in the automatisation of skills. The concept of automatisation refers to the gradual reduction in the need for conscious control as a new skill is learned. This leads to greater speed and efficiency and a decreased likelihood of breakdown of performance under stress, as well as the ability to perform a second task at the same time with minimal disruption to
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2.2.2 ‘Visual deficit’ hypotheses

Samuel Orton was one of the earliest and most influential researchers into dyslexia, although he used the term strephosymbolia – literally meaning ‘twisted symbols’. He noticed that children with specific reading difficulties often wrote letters back to front, confused letters such as ‘b’ and ‘d’, and would swap the position of letters within a word during spelling (e.g. ‘was’ might be written ‘saw’). From these and other observations, he suggested that their read
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2.1 Behavioural, cognitive and biological perspectives

So far we have discussed what contributes to our ideas of ‘abnormality’ and these issues have been illustrated by examining the real-life example of dyslexia. We will now consider the different potential explanations that have been offered to account for the observed symptoms of dyslexia.

Uta Frith (1999) has provided a useful framework for thinking about the nature of developmental difficulties (see Figure 2).

Frith suggests that there are three main perspectives on any given
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1.8 Reflecting on definitions of ‘abnormality’

The main thing to remember is that the way that ‘abnormality’ is defined will have consequences for the method of identification. It will also impact on people's expectations of their future development. For example, we discussed the way that dyslexia is defined in relation to a person's IQ. Does that mean that if someone has a low IQ and an even lower reading age we should adjust our expectations of what that person can achieve with help, or let IQ influence how much help is offered? Sim
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1.7.3 Differentiating dyslexia from other developmental conditions

While dyslexia is distinctive, there are other developmental syndromes that often co-occur with it. Examples include:

  • developmental dysphasia – specific difficulties with spoken language

  • attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder – involving particular problems with concentration and/or behaviour

  • developmental dyspraxia – developmental coordination disorder.

Developmental dysphasia

Developm
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