Pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 15878 result(s) returned

5.7 Summary

This section of the course has made you aware that:

  • science is formed by a community of practice, creating knowledge and requiring a special language for its communication;

  • there is a difference between objective scientific methods and subjective ways of knowing;

  • political power influences scientific discoveries, and scientific knowledge is always socially embedded;

  • public understanding and perception of sci
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.1 Language in everyday life

Language is an ever-present feature of human life. In the developed world in particular, we are surrounded by language. Radio and television provide a soundtrack to the lives of many people. Written language is part of everything from cereal packets and street signs, to relatively new technologies such as email and text messaging. If you were completely alone, far away from any other people or any kind of human contact, how long would it be before words came into your head, perhaps because of
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.5 Talking, thinking and learning

One of the main points which the course will be making is that information and knowledge are not the same thing and that, in order to learn, learners have to engage actively with new information. We hope that you will learn to apply your growing knowledge by relating it to your professional context, and that, by questioning and analysing both theory and practice, you will be able to reach your own conclusions.

One way of engaging with knowledge is to ask questions. Earlier we suggested
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.4 Subject knowledge

Subject knowledge is a critical factor at every point in the teaching process: in planning, assessing and diagnosing, task setting, questioning, explaining and giving feedback.

(Alexander et al., 1992, paragraph 77)

Subject knowledge, which lies at the heart of this course, comes in different forms. One well-known typology (Shulman, 1986) identifies three kinds:

    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.1 An overview of the course

The relationship between observation of children and educational theory is central to the teaching of this course: the theory should help you make sense of what you observe, while your observations should help you make sense of the theory. This perspective is reflected in the activities you will find in the blocks of study material. We recommend that you keep a notebook as you work through the course. You can use this both for the activities that you do at home and for those that involve obse
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Conclusion

Throughout this course, you have been thinking about your personal views on working with others. We have seen that working with parents and other professionals is an important area underpinning practice in early years settings. In the ideal setting, the sharing of skills and information, and the collaborative approach to supporting children's learning, fosters a positive learning environment in which all adults, including parents, work together for the benefit of the children in their care. H
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3.1 Using a framework to think about communication between professionals

Activity 4

0 hours 40 minutes

The objective of this activity is:

  • to use a variety of tools to help you examine your practice.<
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3 Support in action

A teaching assistant’s role of supporting teaching and learning in the classroom may evolve with time. Alternatively an assistant may be recruited to the role for that very purpose, or perhaps they might lie somewhere in the middle, having joined the body of teaching assistants just as the role was being reviewed and bearing witness to its expansion and development. In the penultimate section of this course, we focus with a degree of detail on the practice of teaching assistant Caroline Hig
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.4 The evolving role of the teacher

The impact of the expanding contribution of teaching assistants on the teacher’s role is generally recognised as being positive. It is worth acknowledging, however, that many teachers have had to make adjustments to their practice in order to work with teaching assistants as team colleagues. Many are able to make this adjustment. We do sometimes, however, hear of teachers who find it hard to work well with another adult in a classroom context. Despite the presence of assistants in primary s
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

8 24!

This section aims to show you how daily routine changes from one culture to another.

Activity 31 Routine in the United Kingdom

You should allow 10 minutes

Make some notes on the
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

References

Abbott, P. (2000) ‘Gender’, in Payne, G. (ed.) Social Divisions, Basingstoke, Macmillan.
Ahmad, W. I. U. (1996) ‘The trouble with culture’, in Kelleher, D. and Hillier, S. (eds) Researching Cultural Differences in Health, Chapter 9, London, Routledge.
Banton, M. (1977) The Idea of Race, London, Tavistock.
B
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3.3 Ethnicity

By contrast with ‘race’, ‘ethnicity’ is still widely used to describe differences between groups, although like ‘race’ it is a contested term. The terms ‘ethnic’ and ‘ethnicity’ are commonly used to denote groups of people who share common national or geographical origins, values and beliefs, and customs and traditions. Unlike the notion of ‘race’, ethnicity does not imply innate biological differences but rather similarities derived from belonging to, or being brought
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2 The strains of intimate care

Intimate care involves stepping over people's usual boundaries. It takes us out of familiar territory in terms of how we relate to each other. It necessitates breaking the usual rules about how to behave in order to attend to bodily functions which we normally take a lot of trouble to keep private, and this ‘secrecy’ extends to the work itself. A key issue in Marie's story is the assumption that this area of the work does not need to be mentioned.

Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you t
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

References

Department of Health (1989)An Introduction to the Children Act 1989, HMSO, London.
Welsh, I. (1993)Trainspotting, Minerva, London.

Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.4.12 Bad deaths

What about the other end of the spectrum? What constitutes a bad death? Is there less contention about what constitutes a bad death? Extreme pain and discomfort, humiliating dependence and being a burden are obvious, but what about being alone? Many people say they fear dying alone but there are others who would prefer it. Sudden, unexpected deaths are clearly bad for those left behind but are they also bad for those who die in such circumstances? Sudden unexpected deaths used to be considere
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.4.9 Professional help

Vic’s last few weeks were spent in a state of increasing distrust of the ward staff, since there was never any attempt to open a dialogue from either side. The staff appeared to misinterpret Vic’s silence, and without giving Vic the opportunity to talk, were left having to guess at his wishes.

Li seemed to be able to manage her own treatment in her own way, choosing to combine two systems of medicine. She did, however, have to be assertive with the nursing home staff who were reluct
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.4.8 Comment on case studies

Vic was not consulted about his needs and the possibility of his death was never discussed. The uncertainty about his religious needs resulted in a staff member having to make a decision on his behalf and hope that it was the right one. An added dimension to the uncertainty about Vic’s wishes was the relationship which he had with his sons, in which there was a lot of unresolved conflict.

Li did not have a choice about her place of death because she was unable to speak, but previously
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.4.7 Case study 4: The death of Meg – a home death

Meg was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis at the age of 28, shortly after the birth of her second child, a diagnosis which was changed to systemic lupus erythematosis (usually called SLE or lupus), ten years later. This is a rare chronic degenerative condition, which mostly presents in mild forms, but in Meg’s case the condition was severe.

When Meg was first diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis she was devastated and contemplated suicide, mostly because she was afraid of losing her
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794