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1.4 Nervous-system damage

Chronic consumption of high levels of alcohol can cause irreversible damage to the nervous system. The majority of people with chronic alcoholism have some degree of dementia, which is a general loss of intellectual abilities including memory, judgement and abstract thinking, as well as personality changes. The general effect seems to be a shrinkage of brain tissue, as revealed by brain imaging techniques (Author(s): The Open University

1.2.2 Psychological and sleep disturbances

The severity of hangover symptoms has also been associated with particular personality traits. For example, some research has indicated that individuals with personality traits that predispose them to a risk of alcoholism, experience more severe hangover symptoms than other people.

Although alcohol acts as a sedative, the sleep it induces can be of poorer quality and shorter duration than normal. Ethanol interferes with the action of key neurotransmitters, in particular GABA and glutama
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • describe the effects that ethanol in the blood has on the body – specifically the effect on drivers’ judgement at blood-alcohol concentrations near the legal limit for driving and the serious effects of blood-alcohol concentrations in excess of 200 mg/100 ml;

  • describe the short-term effects experienced following excessive alcohol consumption. Comment on the relationship between these complex effects and ethanol m
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Acknowledgements

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:


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7.6 Conclusion

This extract has emphasised the importance of becoming familiar with the framework of learning outcomes within which your progress would be assessed.

It is imperative for you to be an active learner and take responsibility for what you want and need to get out of your studies. You willl achieve this through reflection on the process of your practice learning experiences and feedback from those involved in assessing your progress.


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7.4.1 Employers and employees

As a student on a professional social work qualification programme, you would need to sign up to the codes of practice as part of registration with your nation's care council. Codes of practice have been devised for all the nations of the UK. In principle they have much in common, providing a clear guide for all those who work in social care, social work or social services generally. They set out the standards of practice that both workers and their employers should meet. While there is much
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7.3 Key roles of social work

The internationally agreed key purpose is, as we have seen, a broad statement that is open to debate. It encapsulates a wide brief for social work. You may well want at this stage to focus in more detail on what it is you will need to do to demonstrate your knowledge and skills to become a qualified social worker in the UK. The key purpose of social work was used as a basis for the development of a number of roles for social workers in the UK and these form part of the overall frameworks used
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5.7 References for Extract 4

Barn, R. (1999) Working with Black Children and Adolescents in Need, London, BAAF.

Butler-Sloss, E. (1988) Report of the Inquiry into Child Abuse in Cleveland, London, HMSO.

Department of Health (2000) Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families, London, Department of Health.

Gardner, R. (2003) Supporting Families: Child Protection in the Community, Chichester, John Wiley.

James, A. and Prout, A. (1997) Constructin
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5.6 Final words

While social work knowledge, skill and experience can make a difference to a family, the contexts in which we practise create the processes which, more than anything else, determine the life chances of us all. Whether social work always contributes to the solution of problems or sometimes actually adds to the problems that some families face is a debate which has existed as long as social work itself. On a more optimistic note, in the end, the vast majority of parents will want to do their be
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5.4 Involving children

The other key person to be consulted is the child herself. Although Jade's ability or willingness to communicate may vary in different contexts, her understanding will remain and for most children this understanding is well in advance of what they are able to communicate verbally. This has important implications and Jade should therefore be included in conversations, even if she does not appear to be participating.

A greater understanding of ways in which to communicate effectively, eve
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5.1 Children's rights

Initial information about the Palmer family

The story of the Palmer family is presented in the audio below, and it provides material about working with families. The case study is a dramatic presentation of a reconstituted family consisting of three generations living in the same household. During th
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4.3 What about communities?

The last activity looked at the key roles from the perspective of Lynne and Arthur as individuals, but in fact it also says that working with ‘families, carers, groups and communities’ is necessary. Do you think that Dev should also be taking account of the Durrants as a family, as carers and as members of a community? Dev's role in assessing Arthur's needs means that he should also take account of his family circumstances, in other words, Lynne and perhaps her sister. Lynne also has a ca
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4.1 Introduction: the social context of social work

Extract 1 discussed the four components of good practice: Knowledge, Skills, Values and Process. From Extract 2 you will now have an understanding of ‘individual people’ in soci
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2.4.2 What are social work values?

Traditionally, one of the things that distinguishes a profession is that it has a set of principles to which its members have to be committed and must put into practice. Sarah Banks defines social work values as:

a set of fundamental moral/ethical principles to which social workers are/should be committed.

(Banks, 2001, p. 6)

The British Association of Social Workers issued a revised C
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1.1.3 Time

The recommended duration of an aerobic exercise session is dependent on several factors, such as the participant’s goals and fitness levels, and the intensity of exercise. Obviously, the higher the intensity of the exercise, the shorter will be its duration. As a general guide the ACSM recommends between twenty and sixty minutes of aerobic exercise, which can be undertaken either continuously – i.e. all at once – or intermittently – i.e. in shorter bouts accumulated during the day (AC
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3.21 Conclusion

This extract has shown that CAM practice raises a variety of ethical issues. Although ethical considerations have different dimensions when applied to CAM, this extract demonstrated that ethical issues – such as consent, competence, boundaries and effective communication – remain central to good practice. CAM practitioners, like all other responsible health care workers, must be taught and encouraged to recognise the ethical dimensions of their work. All practitioners must be accountable
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3.4.5 What can be agreed about ethics?

Even though every person has an idea about what acting ethically means, when faced with an ethically contentious problem, or when it is not clear what will bring about the best outcome, ‘good’ people will act in diverse, and often opposing, ways, while maintaining they are ‘doing the right thing’. While ordinary individuals also have ethical responsibilities to one another (for example, to tell the truth), the duties owed by professionals to their users go beyond everyday ethical resp
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3.4.4 Law imposes more stringent requirements than ethics

All health care practitioners, including those in CAM, must work within the laws of the country where they practise. Although the law does not always reflect what is considered ethical – indeed, ethical duties may be thought of as higher than legal duties – in most jurisdictions it ensures that practitioners are subject, at the very least, to minimal requirements vis-à-vis respect for users' dignity, user information, confidentiality, and maintaining professional boundaries.

Howeve
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3.4.3 Respecting autonomy is the foremost ethical principle in health care

Some commentators believe the pendulum has swung so far in favour of respecting autonomy that it leaves little scope for users to be passive recipients of healing. The desire to make each user an active participant in their own healing process can make it hard, or even impossible, for a user to refuse to engage in active decision making, and leave the decision to the benevolent practitioner. In this case, the user may waive his or her rights, by choosing not to be kept informed about changes
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3.4.2 CAM practitioners are more ethical than conventional doctors

Proponents of CAM argue that because it is safer and has fewer side effects than conventional medicine, CAM practitioners must be inherently more ethical than doctors. This is a false argument in several respects. While CAM is generally very safe compared with some powerful conventional remedies (a point acknowledged in para. 4.21 of the House of Lords Report, 2000), all therapies can cause harm in unskilled hands. Some side effects of CAM are potentially serious, particularly if there is a c
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