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3.1.2. After reading this article:

The chapter by Teesson et al. (2002) will have presented you with a clearly written initial orientation to addiction. The article introduced addiction at several different levels of explanation in what the authors term a ‘biopsy chosocial model’ (p. 47). Such an integrated model is at the heart of the app
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3.1.1 Before reading this article:

Take some time to think about what ‘addiction’ means to you – how chemical and non-chemical substances can be abused and how they can lead to dependent behaviour that can affect individuals and the society in which they live. Write down your ideas.

This short exercise may be useful to establish
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2.3 Central questions in addiction

Arising out of these issues, it is possible to define questions central to a study of addiction. Take time to consider and answer these questions:

2.2 Specific issues in addiction

  1. The term ‘addiction’ carries a number of different meanings. The word is generally used with reference to drugs (e.g. heroin, nicotine, alcohol), where a person is described as being ‘dependent on’ or ‘addicted to’ a substance. Also, substances are described as ‘addictive’ or ‘non-addictive’, implying that addiction is an intrinsic property of the substance. Some people are addicted to food. Given that food is necessary, in what sense is
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1.1.1 A diversity of strategies

Faced with an environment that becomes relatively hostile with the onset of winter, an adult organism can, broadly speaking, do one of four things:

  1. It can maintain an active lifestyle, adapting in various ways to the prevailing conditions. The robin (Erithacus rubecula) is an example of such a species; so are evergreen trees.

  2. It can abandon an active lifestyle, adopting an inactive existence for the duration of winter. The hedgeho
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit, you will be able to:

  • define and use, or recognise definitions and applications of, each of the terms printed in bold in the text;

  • identify the four main strategies shown by organisms for coping with winter;

  • appreciate and give examples of the levels and types of explanation used for understanding these strategies;

  • describe ways in which the strategies can be subjected to experimental manipulation;

    <
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Figures

Figure 6a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/COBE Science Working Group;

Figure 6b Courtesy of NASA/WMAP Science Team;

Figure 7 Courtesy of NOAO.

1. Join the 200,000 students currently studying with
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Unit Image

Calum Davidson

All other materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.

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6: Summary

All objects, irrespective of their mass, experience the same acceleration g when falling freely under the influence of gravity at the same point on the Earth. Close to the Earth's surface, g=9.8 m s−2. The weight of an object is the force F g due to gravity acting on the object, and for an object with mass m the weight is given by F g=mg.

If the height of an object of mass m changes by Δh, the ch
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Introduction

From the moment that Galileo dropped two cannonballs of different sizes and weights from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa mankind has been fascinated by the impact of gravity. This unit looks at gravity, its impact on objects and how the energy involved in the movement of objects is dispersed or stored.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extract from How the universe works (S197) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, yo
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5 Summary

Earthquakes shake the ground surface, can cause buildings to collapse, disrupt transport and services, and can cause fires. They can trigger landslides and tsunami.

Earthquakes occur mainly as a result of plate tectonics, which involves blocks of the Earth moving about the Earth's surface. The blocks of rock move past each other along a fault. Smaller earthquakes, called foreshocks, may precede the main earthquake, and aftershocks may occur after the main earthquake. Earthquakes are mai
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1.6.6 Professional bodies and societies

Consider joining a learned society or professional organisation. They can be very useful for conference bulletins as well as in-house publications, often included in the subscription. Don't forget to ask about student rates. Try looking for the websites of learned societies associated with your subject area (e.g. The Royal Society, the Institute of Electrical
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1.6.5 RSS

RSS (‘Really Simple Syndication’ or ‘Rich Site Summary’) newsfeeds supply headlines, links, and article summaries from various websites. By using RSS ‘feedreader’ software you can gather together a range of feeds and read them in one place: they come to you, rather than you having to go out and look for breaking news. The range of RSS feeds on offer is growing daily. There is probably a feed to cover all aspects of your life where you might need the latest information, and you may
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1.5.9 Plagiarism

Referencing is not only useful as a way of sharing information, but also as a means of ensuring that due credit is given to other people’s work. In the electronic information age, it is easy to copy and paste from journal articles and web pages into your own work. But if you do use someone else’s work, you should acknowledge the source by giving a correct reference.

Taking someone's work and not indicating where you took it from is termed plagiarism and is regarded as an infringemen
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1.5.6 Copyright - what you need to know

An original piece of work, whether it is text, music, pictures, sound recordings, web pages, etc., is protected by copyright law and may often have an accompanying symbol (©) and/or legal statement.. In the UK it is the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 which regulates this.

In most circumstances, works protected by copyright can be used in whole or in part only with the permission of the owner. In some cases this permission results in a fee.

However, the UK legislation inc
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1.5.2 Ways of organizing yourself

How do you organize yourself?

Activity

Make a note of how you organise your:

  • emails

  • internet bookmarks or favorites

  • computer files

  • your h
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1.1.4 Evaluating Information

How well does the following statement describe your approach to evaluating the information that you use?

When I come across a new piece of information (e.g. a website, newspaper article) I consider the quality of the information, and based on that I decide whether or not to use it.

  • 5 - This is an excellent match; this is exactly what I do


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References

Note: the websites listed below were last accessed in July 2003.
Alters, B. J. (1997) ‘Whose Nature of Science?’, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43 (1), pp. 39–55.
Amos, S. and Boohan, R. (2002) Aspects of teaching secondary science: perspectives on practice, London, RoutledgeFalmer/Milton Keynes, The Open University.
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2 What is science?

In all subjects – and science no less so than others – definitions are problematic. At one level, science is a body of knowledge about the natural world. But this begs the question: what is peculiar about scientific knowledge as opposed to, taking just one example, an explanation of the origin of the Universe rooted in folklore and superstition? Others might argue that the scientific approach is unique – that the processes involved in doing science are distinct. That might
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9.5 Tables

Using a table or just a set of columns can help you to analyse information and ideas. You can vary the number of columns and rows as needed. The following activity provides an opportunity for you to summarise information in a table.

Activity 7: Completing a table


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