This unit has introduced you to some aspects of using a scientific or graphics calculator. However, in many ways, it has only scratched the surface. Hopefully your calculator will be your friend throughout your study of mathematics and beyond. Like any friend, you will get to know it better and appreciate its advantages as you become more familiar with it. Don't expect to know everything at the beginning. You may find the instruction booklet, or other help facility, a bit hard going to begin
Author(s): The Open University

The calculator will give you information about any number that you have entered: for example, its square or cube, its square root or cube root. It will also give you information about a whole list of numbers: for example, the mean (average) or the highest value in the list.

Author(s): The Open University

The calculator retains numbers, formulas and programs which you have stored in it, even when it is turned off. You can recall them when you need them and so save time by not having to enter the same information again.

Author(s): The Open University

The calculator does not make mistakes in the way that human brains tend to. Human fingers do, however, make mistakes sometimes; and the calculator may not be doing what you think you have told it to do. So correcting errors and estimating the approximate size of answers are important skills in double-checking your calculator calculations. (Just as they are for checking calculations done in your head or on paper!)

Author(s): The Open University

You can see the calculations that you have entered as well as the answers. This means you can easily check whether you have made any mistakes.

Author(s): The Open University

1 Write the following as a number to a single power:

• (a) 26 Ã· 22

• (b) 1010 Ã· 107

• (c) 78 Ã· 74

• Author(s): The Open University

1 Write the following as one number to a single power:

• (a) 23 Ã— 24

• (b) 32 Ã— 34

• (c) 42 Ã— 43 Ã— 44<
Author(s): The Open University

In this unit you will see first how to convert vectors from geometric form, in terms of a magnitude and direction, to component form, and then how conversion in the opposite sense is accomplished. The ability to convert between these different forms of a vector is useful in certain problems involving displacement and velocity, as shown in SectionÂ 2, in which you will also work with bearings.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course
Author(s): The Open University

You will come to this unit with many memories of mathematics, both as a teacher and a learner. It may help if you start by recalling memories of learning mathematics and making a record of them in your notebook.

When you work on a task, get into the habit of having your notebook to hand to record your thinking. Use the notebook in any way that helps you to think about the work you have done. Some people find it helpful to divide a page into two columns using the left-hand side to record
Author(s): The Open University

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence, see terms and conditions). This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following:

## Figures

Figur
Author(s): The Open University

Alley, R. B. (2000) The Two Mile Time Machine, Princeton, Princeton University Press.
Arnakak, J. (2000) â€˜What is Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit?â€™, Nunatsiaq News, 25 August, p. 11.

Author(s): The Open University

I have already noted that the great ice sheets took about 100,000 years to form and only about 10,000 years to decay. So what happened at the end of the last ice age? Figure 15 shows the EPICA ice core CO2 concentration and air temperature for the most recent 20 000 years, which is within the last ice
Author(s): The Open University

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

• appreciate how chemical processes in the rest of the world affect the Arctic environment and the species inhabiting it;

• recognise the physical processes that determine atmosphere and oceanic flows in the Arctic;

• appreciate the scientific research process and the use of scientific evidence;

• use quantitative scientific evidence to examine the link between atmospheric carbon dioxide levels a
Author(s): The Open University

The scientific theory of plate tectonics suggests that at least some of these Arctic lands were once tropical. Since then the continents have moved and ice has changed the landscape. This unit will concentrate on evidence from the last 800,000 years using information collected from ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica, and will use this evidence to discuss current and possible future climate. The cores show that there have been nine periods in the recent past when large areas of the Earth
Author(s): The Open University

Let's now look at carbon footprint reduction targets in a bit more detail.

The first international agreement to set carbon reduction targets was the 1997 United Nations Kyoto Protocol, which requires developed countries to reduce their human-generated greenhouse gas emissions by an average of just over 5% on 1990 levels by 2008 to 2012. By the time the treaty came into force in 2005, only the USA and Australia had refused to sign. (A new Australian government finally signe
Author(s): The Open University

Most of this section requires you to continue using the Quick Carbon Calculator (linked in the box below).

If you've completed the carbon calculator , you'll have a good idea of your carbon footprint and the relative contribution to the total load made by different components of consumption. You'll also know how your footprint compares to that of an average person in the UK.

If you live outside the UK, you may have used a calculator that provides somewhat different information abo
Author(s): The Open University

To put the temperature records reported by the IPCC in context, we start with a longer-term geological perspective on the Earth's GMST.

Author(s): The Open University

Capra, F. (1996) The Web of Life. Used by permission of Doubleday, a division of Random House, Inc., and, in the UK, reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Ltd.
Capra, F. (2002) The Hidden Connections: Integrating the Biological, Cognitive, and Social Dimension of Life into a Science of Sustainability. Used by permission of Doubleday, a division of Random House, Inc., and, in the UK, reprin
Author(s): The Open University

I believe that the principal task for an environmental pragmatism is not to reengage the â€¦ debates in environmental ethics but rather to impress upon environmental philosophers the need to take up the largely empirical question of what morally motivates humans to change their attitudes, behaviours, and policy preferences toward those more supportive of long-term environmental sustainability.

(Light, 2002, p. 446)

Author(s): The Open University

Throughout this unit, a major concern has been to show how the demand of the antisweatshop movement that we not only respond to, but take responsibility for, economic injustices, no matter how distant, is an intensely controversial one. Claims by campaigning groups such as Oxfam and Christian Aid that consumer demand for cheap branded goods perpetuates poverty wage levels in the sweatshop industries are countered by claims from the pro-market lobby which point in an altogether differen
Author(s): The Open University