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Introduction

This unit looks at human healthcare concentrating on the life sciences sector. You will see the historical development of the pharmaceutical industry and examine the relevant management strategies used.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Strategic management in life sciences and healthcare (BS811) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this Author(s): The Open University

2 Identifying potential consultants

Once you have decided on the sort of consultancy needed, the first problem, mentioned by Clark (1995), is identifying potential consultants. I asked an associate with considerable experience in this how she went about identifying potential consultants. Her initial, and unhelpful, response was ‘you just know’. Tacit knowledge is clearly important here. Probing elicited the following:

Firstly my organisation was
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1.4 Seasoned equity offerings

The issuance of additional shares is called a seasoned or secondary equity offering (SEO). SEOs are common in the London market, but less common in the USA. In some countries, including the UK, one form of SEO is a rights issue. In such issues the existing shareholders are given the right to buy further shares, usually in an amount proportionate to their prevailing holdings. This is known as a pre-emption right.

While rights issues can support the need of a successful comp
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7.3 What is an effective decision?

To improve decision making it is first important to have a clear idea of how we should judge an effective decision. While in this unit we have suggested that decisions often stray from formal rationality, this does not always mean those decisions are less effective. Sometimes it is smart to take mental shortcuts: drawing on hunches and intuition can allow us to tap our tacit knowledge and experience and can reduce the costs of decision making. It can be smart to ask what is ‘legitimate’ w
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4.3 Framing the problem

As you saw in Activity 1, how a problem is framed can have a significant effect on how you make decisions. Medical decisions can be affected by whether outcomes are framed as likelihood of deaths or of saving patients. Financial decisions can be affected by whether you see yourself in a position of loss or gain. In a position of gain we tend to become risk averse; in a position of loss we will tend to take risks to avoid or recover losses. You may know people who are good at using this
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References

Bain, P. and Taylor, P. (2004) No Passage to India? UK Unions, Globalisation and the Migration of Call Centre Jobs, Work, Employment and Society Conference 1–3 September 2004, Manchester.
Cowe, R. and Porritt, J. (2002) Government's Business: Enabling corporate sustainability. London: Forum for the Future.
Knox, S. and Maklan, S. (2004), ‘Corporate Social R
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3.2 Evaluation during the planning stage

Evaluation at this stage is usually concerned with whether plans represent good value for money. It may be appropriate to evaluate inputs to the project, to ensure that their quality and quantities are sufficient to achieve the objectives. In large building projects, many specialist tasks are subcontracted. Specifications are developed, and potential contractors are invited to tender for work. The element of competition can lead to problems if some tenderers are over-anxious to win contracts.
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References

Boddy, D. and Buchanan, D. (1992) Take the Lead: Interpersonal Skills for Project Managers, London, Prentice Hall.
Buchanan, D. and Badham, R (1999) Power, Politics and Organizational Change, London, Sage.
Deeble, S. (1999) ‘Holding hands on the brands’, The Guardian, 17 July.
Fowler, A. and Walsh, M. (1999)
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9 Summary

This unit has focused on managing projects through people and how important this is in relation to:

  • managing the relationship with stakeholders;

  • motivating the project team to get results;

  • dealing with senior management;

  • building relationships across the organisation in order to encourage co-operation;

  • satisfying the client and end user.

Recapping on the learning obje
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8 Satisfying the client and end user

Most projects have an identifiable client or customer group which will benefit from or use the outcome of the project. The client may be external to the organisation which is implementing the project, for example, the customer for whom a new building is being constructed. Or the clients may be internal, for example, the users of a new IT system. As we have already seen, it is important that the client or end user shares and endorses the project's objectives and is actively involved in its dev
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7.2.4 Using questions

Questions can be used as a means both of persuasion and of control. Repeatedly telling an individual something that they are unwilling to accept is unlikely to get them to change their mind. It is better instead to ask carefully constructed questions that will lead him or her to realise the strength of your case and the weakness of their own. Asking questions gives the questioner more control over the conversation, forcing the other side to respond. Writing down a list of appropriate question
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5.1 The relationship with senior management

Senior management have a crucial sponsoring role to play both during the planning and the implementation of projects, in terms of establishing their legitimacy, making project resources available and endorsing project progress. For this reason, those involved in a project must be proactive about securing and maintaining senior management support throughout its lifetime. They need to be explicit with senior management that the project is both attractive and feasible. However, during a project,
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4.2 Assessing the strengths and weaknesses of a project team

Those involved in a project may have skills that fulfil more than one aspect of the project agenda. This is likely to be particularly important in small-scale projects, where management of the content, process and control agendas are just as important to the project's success, but where fewer people are involved.

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Introduction

The aim of Managing Projects through People is to demonstrate the importance of managing people for the success of a project, to identify groups and individuals whose appropriate involvement in a project is important for its success, and to consider ways in which their contribution might be maximised.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Fundamentals of Senior Management (B713) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study form
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1.2 What is expected from projects?

  • The project may be expected to deliver financial benefits to the organisation.

  • In the public sector projects are usually expected to lead to social, economic and political outcomes.

All projects are different. The level of complexity differs and the context in which a project exists will affect it. There is no single right way to manage a project. All projects have customers.

There are three key dimensions to a projec
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Chris Stalker, He
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1 Problems facing campaigning organisations

This unit aims to explore some of the problems campaigning organisations can encounter, and how such problems can be anticipated and even avoided. It consists of:

  • a short case study about a parent teacher association which is campaigning for the lowering of the speed limit on roads within the vicinity of its school.

  • an audio extract from a podcast interview on campaigning which forms part of the learning material for the OU Business Scho
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • understand some of the necessary changes that organisations may have to make in order to achieve particular campaigns;

  • give examples of how organisations have changed their campaigns to achieve their goals.


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1 Invention and innovation

The terms ‘invention’ and ‘innovation’ are sometimes used interchangeably, although the concepts are readily distinguished. As you will see here, it is helpful to make a distinction in the context of organisational analysis. First consider what you understand by the term invention.

Activity 1


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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should:

  • understand why and how innovation is important;

  • recognise the benefits which innovation can confer on an innovating organisation.


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