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3.2 Trimeric G proteins

G proteins are attached to the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane, where they serve as relay proteins between the receptors and their target signalling proteins.

Trimeric G proteins interact with 7TM receptors and are all heterotrimeric, having structurally different α, β and γ subunits. Monomeric G proteins are the small G proteins, such as Ras, which are structurally related to the α subunit of trimeric G proteins.

The three-dimensional structure of trimeric G proteins in
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5.1 Introduction

There are several types of diabetes, including two that are common: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 2 is the most common sort of diabetes. Worldwide, about 90 per cent of people with diabetes have Type 2 and about 10 per cent have Type 1. The other sorts of diabetes account for very small numbers of people.


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10 Managing the BSE/vCJD episode from March 1996

In March 1996, SEAC announced that the CJD Surveillance Unit had identified vCJD as a new human disease, the first death from which occurred in May 1995. SEAC concluded that, although there was no direct evidence of a link, the most likely explanation for vCJD was exposure to BSE before the SBO ban was introduced in 1989. At the time, the strongest evidence for the link was that vCJD was a new TSE in humans (the symptoms of which differed from previously known human TSEs) that had aris
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1.5.7 The signed area under a general velocity–time graph

We have already seen (in Section 3.6) that in the context of uniform motion, the signed area under a particle's velocity–time graph, between two given times, represents the change in the particle's position during that time interval, with a positive area corresponding to displacement in the positive direction. In the
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1.5.3 A note on functions and derivatives

This subsection introduces two crucially important mathematical ideas, functions and derivatives, both of which are used throughout physics.


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1.4.4 The equations of uniform motion

It has already been said that the straight-line graph of any uniform motion can be represented by an equation of the general form

where A and B are constants. Different cases of uniform motion simply correspond to different values for the constants A<
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1.4.3 Initial position and the intercept of the position–time graph

The uniform motion of a particle is such a simple form of motion that apart from enquiring about the particle's velocity, the only other kinematic question you can ask is ‘where was the particle at some particular time?’ The most common way of answering this question is to specify the initial position of the particle, that is, its position at time t = 0 s.

Although it is common to refer to the position at t = 0 as the ‘initial position’ it is also possib
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1.1 The description of motion

The concepts that have been developed to allow the description of motion – concepts such as speed, velocity and acceleration – are now so much a part of everyday language that we rarely think about them. Just consider the number of times each day you have to describe some aspect of motion or understand an instruction about motion; obey a speed limit or work out a journey time. We may take the description of motion for granted, but the concepts involved are so fundamen
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2.2.3 Couch

The couch or patient trolley must be radio-translucent (i.e. it allows through most of the X-rays). Nonetheless there is some interaction between the couch and the X-rays and this can be a cause of scattered radiation.


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5 Public learning agendas

So far, this unit has argued that public engagement with science can be through both institutionalised events and independent contributions – hopefully, something for everyone. But to what extent will this be a consistent move towards dialogue and understanding, as requested by the UK and EU policies mentioned in Section 2?

Reading 2 suggests a move towards genuine interaction is possible if there is enough political motivation to enhance community learning of science and technology
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3.5 Senses: smell

Smell is rightly emphasised in LoM as important to carnivores. It offers advantages over visual and sound signals, which may be difficult to detect, for example at night or in dense vegetation. Furthermore, scent marks ‘hang around’ longer. The most familiar examples are the urine and faeces deposited regularly at special places.

Who is not familiar with the male dog that leaves token amounts of urine to re-anoint the same lamp post each day? By cocking their legs they raise the lev
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2.2.2 Precision

Measuring the same sample should give the same result every time if the equipment is precise. In practice, the information displayed by a measuring device can depend on several factors (such as temperature and humidity) and can drift slightly over time. Nevertheless, during the time it takes to complete a measurement sequence, all measurements ought to remain within a specified, small margin of error, often marked on the equipment. We will see later on, in Author(s): The Open University

2.1.1 Accuracy

The way to ensure that equipment is accurate is to use a series of known standards against which to calibrate the equipment. Calibrating should be done at least each day and sometimes more frequently (such as before using the equipment to measure unknown samples). Many types of measuring equipment go through an automatic calibration when they are switched on, but others require the user to provide a series of known calibration standards.


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1.10 Subtraction of decimal numbers

Subtraction of numbers can be used to answer questions such as ‘what's the difference between two values?’ or ‘if something has decreased by a certain amount, what's its new value?’ Subtraction can also be thought of as undoing the process of addition. For instance, instead of saying ‘£10 take away £7.85 leaves how much?’ you could say, ‘what do I have to add to £7.85 to get back to £10?’

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1.9 Addition of decimal numbers

If we add 109.8 ml of one liquid to 6.5 ml of another liquid, what would be the total volume of liquid in ml?

To compare 109.8 with 6.5, you need to remember that

Place the two numbers in a grid on top of each other and make sure that columns representing the same magnitude line up wit
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1.8.1 Study Note 4

If you have difficulty with this section, you might find it helpful to investigate some of the Government schemes aimed at improving maths skills. More information about such schemes can be found at http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/EducationAndLearning/AdultLearning/ImprovingYourSkills/index.htm (accessed 5 March 2008).

Box 3: The basics
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3.6 Moon38: Apollo 12 station 5

Two of the frames show Al Bean carrying the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) packages out from the Lunar Module. (QuickTime, 500KB, note: this may take some time to download depending on your connection speed)

Introduction

This unit is an adapted extract from the course Biological psychology: exploring the brain (SD226)

This unit looks at how language is understood, which includes hearing and how sounds and words are interpreted by the brain. It takes an interdisciplinary approach and should be of wide general interest.


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3 Orogenies in the Proterozoic

The document attached below includes the third section of Mountain building in Scotland. In this section, you will find the following subsections:

  • 3.1 Introduction

  • 3.2 Palaeoproterozoic rifting, sedimentation and magmatism

  • 3.3 The Palaeoproterozoic Laxfordian Orogeny

    • 3.3.1 Assembly of the Lewisian Complex

    • 3.3.2 Formation of Proterozoic crust


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1 Introduction

The document attached below includes the table of contents and first section of Mountain building in Scotland. In this section, you will find the following subsections:

  • Table of contents

  • 1.1 Setting the scene

  • 1.2 Recognizing ancient mountains

  • 1.3 Orogeny through geological time

    • 1.3.1 Geological time: a brief note

    • 1.3.2 Disentangling the cont
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