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1.4.2 Sedimentary processes

Sedimentary grains are formed when the rocks at the Earth's surface are slowly broken up physically by exposure to wind and frost, and decomposed (chemically) by rainwater or biological action. These processes are collectively termed weathering. Once a rock has been broken up by weathering, the small rock fragments and individual mineral grains can be eroded from their place of origin by water, wind or glaciers and transported to be deposited elsewhere as roughly horizontal layers of sediment
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7.4.3 Modelling errors

  • be aware that it is often possible to provide an estimate of error for numerical values derived from the application of theoretical models to a data set.

For me, thinking about the use of models convinces me of some of the benefits of ‘problematising’ science – as we've been doing in the commentary so far. Indeed, my feeling is that using models reflects something more general about how scientific understanding is built up. By this I me
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7.4.1 Uses of models not made explicit

  • recognise that many scientific findings follow from the use of theoretical models in addition to consideration of empirical data;

  • be aware that numerical values provided by scientists may be derived directly from data, or from the application of theoretical models to a data set.


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3.3.2 Key characteristics of being a sole trader

In general terms, some of the key characteristics of being a sole trader are that:

  • you ‘own’ the business; strictly, you own the property of the business, and have a variety of other legal capacities. In a more general sense, we can say that the wealth represented by the business is yours; in other words, you are entitled to all the capital of the business.

  • you make the decisions which affect the nature and running of the business.
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5.3 Stellar astrophysics

If tunnelling out of nuclei is possible then so is tunnelling in! As a consequence it is possible to trigger nuclear reactions with protons of much lower energy than would be needed to climb over the full height of the Coulomb barrier. This was the principle used by J.D. Cockcroft and E.T.S. Walton in 1932 when they caused lithium-7 nuclei to split into pairs of alpha particles by bombarding them with high-energy protons. Their achievement won them the 1951 Nobel prize for physics. The same p
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Law. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner. 


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3.7 The growth of the ECHR

The achievements of the ECHR are many. It continues to promote human rights and democracy across Europe, it has established jurisprudence in human rights and it has made significant contributions to the continued peace and stability of Europe. Recent reforms mean that the right of individual petition is now guaranteed, so individuals are afforded protection from the power of the state. The number of HCPs has expanded to 46 and access to the protection of the ECHR and the ECtHR is available to
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7.2 An EU constitution: moving the debate on

In the next activity you will be able to build upon the previous one and observe the way in which the debate on the new EU constitution has progressed and moved to another level on its way to ratification.

Activity 7 A snapshot from the EU constitutional debate (2)

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1.7 Fractions

A fraction is written as one number over another (such as ) and means the top number divided by the bottom number. The top number, 3, is called the numerator and the bottom number, 10, is call
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3.1 Positive coordinates

For many towns and cities, an individual book of street maps called an A to Z has been produced. You can look up the name of a street in the index, and it will give you the page number of the map that contains the street, plus the grid reference square for the street. There are different conventions for these grid references. You may have met several of these.


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3.1 Have I done the right calculation?

Once you have done a calculation, with or without the aid of a calculator, it is important that you pause for a moment to check your calculation.

You need to ask yourself some questions.

  1. Have I done the right calculation in the right order?

  2. Have I given due consideration to units of measurement?

  3. Is my answer reasonable?

  4. Did I make a rough estimate to act as a check?

Your calculation wil
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2.1.1 Try some yourself

Activity 14

Measurement of a ceiling gives a length of 6.28 m and a width of 3.91 m.

  • (a) Make a rough estimate of the area of the ceiling (the length times the width).


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1.3 Rounding in general

Numbers are often approximated to make them easier to handle, but sometimes it doesn’t help very much to round to the nearest 10 or the nearest 100 if the number is very large. For example, suppose the monthly balance of payments deficit was actually £24 695 481. Rounded to the nearest 10, it's £24 695 480; and to the nearest 100, it's £24 695 500. But £24 695 500 is still a complicated number to deal with in your head. That's why it was rounded to £25 000 000 in the newspaper
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1.2.2 Rounding to the nearest ten

The blouse in the figure above was £19 and you may well have thought of it as roughly £20. In this case you would be rounding to the nearest ten (pounds).

The rule for rounding to the nearest hundred can be adapted easily to rounding to the nearest ten. Instead of looking at the tens digit look at the units digit.

So £23 is rounded down (to £20) and £36 is rounded up (to £40).


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1.2.1 Rounding to the nearest hundred

You will probably think to yourself that the coat shown costs about £300. £290 is considerably closer to £300 than it is to £200, so £300 is a reasonable approximation. In this case, 290 has been rounded up to 300. Similarly, 208 would be rounded down to 200 because it is closer to 200 than it is to 300. Both numbers have been rounded to the nearest hundred pounds.

When rounding to the nearest hundred, anything below fifty rounds down. So 248 rounds to 200. Anything o
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Try some yourself

Question 1

Draw a line of symmetry on each of the shapes below.

1.4 Parallel lines

Two straight lines that do not intersect, no matter how far they are extended, are said to be parallel. Arrows are used to indicate parallel lines.


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3.1 Introduction

In this section we shall develop the correspondence between C and R × R by obtaining a geometric representation of elements of C and operations on C. We shall define the polar form of a complex number and the modulus and argument of a complex number. We shall see that not only does Author(s): The Open University

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5 Hyperbolic functions

In Section 4 we introduce the hyperbolic functions sinh, cosh and tanh, which are constructed from exponential functions. These hyperbolic functions share some of the properties of the trigonometric functions but, as you will see, their graphs are very different.

Click the link below to open Section 4 (5 pages, 104KB).

Section 4
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2.3.1 Try some yourself

Activity 14

A piece of computer software is to be developed by a team of programmers. It is estimated that a team of four people would take a year. Which of the following times is the length of time taken by three program
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