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3.3 Conclusions

The main points made in this reading have been:

  1. Groups cannot be understood simply in terms of the interactions between individual members because:

    • individuals have contracts with the group as a whole and this is distinct from their relationships with other members of the group on a one-to-one basis;

    • people behave differently in groups;

    • there are simply too many possible interactio
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3.2.5 Group development

Next on the list of priorities in the functioning of groups is the process of group development. One popular conception of the way in which groups 'gel' and become effective was first suggested by Tuckman (1965) and then extended by Tuckman and Jensen (1977). Tuckman originally identified four stages in this development process, which he named 'forming', 'storming', 'norming' and 'performing'. These stages (see Author(s): The Open University

2.8 Why do (only some) teams succeed?

Clearly, it is not possible to devise a set of rules which, if followed, would lead inexorably to team effectiveness. The determinants of a successful team are complex and not equivalent to following a set of prescriptions. However, the results of poor teamworking can be expensive, so it is useful to draw on research, experience and case studies to explore some general guidelines. What do I mean by 'team effectiveness'? – the achievement of goals alone? Where do the achievements of individu
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2.3.1 The functional team

The hierarchical structure described above divides groups of people along largely functional lines: people working together carry out the same or similar functions. A functional team is a team in which work is carried out within such a functionally organised group. This can be project work. In organisations in which the functional divisions are relatively rigid, project work can be handed from one functional team to another in order to complete the work. For example, work on a new product can
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2.3 Types of teams

Different organisations or organisational settings lead to different types of team. The type of team affects how that team is managed, what the communication needs of the team are and, where appropriate, what aspects of the project the project manager needs to emphasise. A work group or team may be permanent, forming part of the organisation's structure, such as a top management team, or temporary, such as a task force assembled to see through a particular project. Members may work as a group
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2.1 What is a group?

Our tendency to form groups is a pervasive aspect of organisational life. As well as formal groups, committees and teams, there are informal groups, cliques and cabals.

Formal groups are used to organise and distribute work, pool information, devise plans, coordinate activities, increase commitment, negotiate, resolve conflicts and conduct inquests. Group working allows the pooling of people's individual skills and knowledge, and helps compensate for individual deficiencies. It has been
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1 course outline

The focus of this course is on relating to groups of other people rather than one-to-one relationships. Reading 1 develops some general concepts about 'groups' and 'teams', not just those at work. The later readings look at groups from particular perspectives or contexts, with the aim of discovering ideas about how to make them function more effectively.

This is, in fact, the main aim of this course: to help you understand how you might function more effectively in a group by improving
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4.1 Introduction

Additional material for this unit, by David Chapman, January 2005

The start of optical-fibre communication is generally identified with a paper published in 1966 (Kao and Hockham, 1966). It was not until about ten years later that it was commercially viable, but from then on there was more or less continuous development, with substantial research effort taking place both in industry and universities.

Innovation continues today, and this additional material introduces some o
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3.2 Directional couplers

A simple yet valuable device is the directional coupler (Figure 19). A directional coupler can be constructed from two single-mode fibres by bringing them into close contact and heating so that the glass melts and the two fibres fuse. Light can then pass from one fibre to the o
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3.1 Introduction

The basic optical-fibre link consisted of the source (laser or LED), the fibre and the detector, as was shown in Figure 1. Improvements in these components can increase the data rate, but the system is still a point-to-point transmission link and all signal processing, such as routein
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2.6 Connecting and splicing fibres

There are two different types of fibre joint that need to be considered: permanent splices (the equivalent of soldered or crimped connections on copper cables) and demountable connectors.

Splices are used along a route to allow a link to be built up from convenient lengths of cable. The lengths are typically 2 km. Fibre is manufactured in lengths longer than this, but, once put in a cable, lengths longer than 2 km are difficult to transport and lay. Splices are also used t
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2.4.3 Polarization mode distortion

Because light is an electromagnetic wave, it has a ‘state of polarization’, which, for light in single-mode fibre, is at right angles to the path of the fibre. If you've not encountered electromagnetic waves before, all you need to appreciate is that as light travels down the fibre the electromagnetic field has an orientation across the fibre (Author(s): The Open University

5.9 Ethical reasoning

Now Ned's got three things. He's got the money that is presumably ‘good’. He's got his defence policy, which he thinks is ‘good’. Ros then introduces the well-being of the community. They are all ‘goods’ but each pulls in a different direction. Any judgement that Ned makes has to be based on an aggregation of these things. But, of course, these are quite different kinds of things, they are incommensurate, so adding up these things is not a straightforward proposition. Ros is hopin
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4.3 Can theft be right?

When Sara is on her mission to find out, to get to the bottom of things, she gets hold of some financial records, and Herrenvolk accuses Sarah of theft. Strictly speaking, this is theft, but she discovers that these financial records are rather suspicious and, perhaps, provide evidence of some undercover action. So there is a question here: even if this is theft, is it ‘right’ in that case? Were suspicions enough to justify the stealing? Take a moment to think about this.

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5.15 Summary of Section 5

It is probably worth summarising some of the main points you should take away from this section on primary vibrators. The first thing to remember is that when an instrument is excited, it vibrates strongly at certain frequencies called natural (or resonance) frequencies. The reason for this is that standing waves are set up in the instrument's primary vibrator at these frequencies. The next thing to note is that some primary vibrators, such as a string or an air column, have natural frequenci
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5.13.4 Pitches of notes produced by percussion instruments

We have seen that none of the rectangular bar, the circular membrane and the circular plate have harmonically related natural frequencies. It may not surprise you to learn, therefore, that instruments containing these primary vibrators tend to produce notes that don't have a very well-defined sense of pitch.

This is certainly true in the case of the cymbal, which has a circular plate as its primary vibrator. Whether a single cymbal is struck with a drumstick or two cymbals are crashed t
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5.3 Vibrating string: standing waves on a string

We still haven't answered the question of how standing waves are set up on a string. To do so we need to return to our string, fixed at one end and held in someone's hand at the other end. Imagine now that instead of sending a single pulse along the string, the person flicks their hand up and down periodically and sends a sinusoidal wave along the string. This wave gets reflected and inverted at the fixed end and travels back towards the person holding the string. There are now two waves of t
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1 Aims of Creating musical sounds

The aims of this unit are to:

  • introduce the idea that a musical instrument is made up of several component parts and that each component has natural frequencies at which it prefers to vibrate;

  • introduce the concept of standing waves and explain how a standing wave is made up of two travelling waves;

  • show that a component prefers to vibrate at its natural frequencies because these are the frequencies at which standing waves
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6.1 Introduction

This section is concerned with the plant used in carrying water from the treatment works to houses, farms, blocks of flats and other buildings of a community. The major components of this distribution network are shown in Figure 37 and comprise:

  1. the service reservoir, which must balance the fluctuating demands of the users against the steady output from the source of supply, as well as provide a back-up supply should there be a breakdown at the source;
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5.14.2 Reverse osmosis

This technique, explained in Section 3.8.1, is rapidly becoming a major means of desalination, with research producing membranes with lower operating pressures (and hence lower operating costs). Originally a pressure of 14 × 106 Pa was needed to separate pure water from sea water but with newer membranes only half this pressure is required. Reverse osmosis membranes operate at ambient temperature, in contrast to multistage flash distillation, and this lower temperature minimises s
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