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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creativ
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Activity 7: Hofstede's way of thinking about national culture

Allow 60 minutes for this activity.

Activity 6 introduced you to Hofstede's academic writing. This activity takes this further by giving you the chance to take a closer look at what he actually said.

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Activity 4: What do you see?

Allow 60 minutes for this activity.

Now that you have understood the nature of national culture and how it is manifested in your context, the following activities will help you to appreciate why it matters. Culture influences your way of thinking. Indeed Hofstede argues that it is a ‘given’ for organisations and therefore also influences the way in which organisations are managed.

This activity will help you to understand why culture matters by helping you to see how di
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Activity 3: Your own national culture

Allow 30 minutes for this activity.

So far in this course you have looked at the definitions of national and organisational culture, and the differences between them. For the rest of the course the focus will be on just one of these topics – national culture. This is because, as Activity 2
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4.2.4 Collecting possible solutions

This is the most creative part of the problem-solving process: it involves breaking the mindset within which situations are normally interpreted. Brainstorming is a good way to generate new approaches, by making sure that even apparently ridiculous ideas are not thrown out in the initial stages. Brainstorming has two basic principles:

  • quantity is more important than quality, in the creative phase;

  • critical comments are not allowed, at th
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4.2.1 Defining the problem

It is vital that the problem is identified correctly. If the risk management system is working properly, the problem should not have hit you completely out of the blue, and you should already have some idea what it is about. But, although there is often a temptation to skip the definition phase and go straight to causes and solutions, it is important to be as clear as possible about the nature of the problem as seen from different perspectives, by answering questions such as those below.

<
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1.1 Line graphs

A line graph is a method of showing a relationship between two variables, such as the output of an organisation and the associated costs. There are some special terms that you need to understand in order to create and interpret line graphs. These terms include: the axes, the origin, the intercept and the slope (or gradient).

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6 Course questions

Try to answer the following questions:

Question 1

What is meant by ‘social cognitive theory’?

Answer

Social cognitive theory describes how an
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The communications mix – a few points to note

The above classification raises a few points which it may be useful to bear in mind:

  • Communication tools change over time and particularly as a result of technological developments.

  • Related to the above point is a blurring of distinction between ‘promotion’ and ‘place’ (method of distribution). This is particularly true as direct marketing and subsequently internet/interactive marketing have been included as separate communica
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3.2 The factors which influence consumer behaviour

A large number of factors influence our behaviour. Kotler and Armstrong (2008) classify these as:

  1. Psychological (motivation, perception, learning, beliefs and attitudes)

  2. Personal (age and life-cycle stage, occupation, economic circumstances, lifestyle, personality and self concept)

  3. Social (reference groups, family, roles and status)

  4. Cultural (culture, subculture, social
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5.1.1 SMART objectives

When the objectives are identified, trying to ensure that each objective is SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timebound) is good practice or at least to have considered the extent to which these conditions could be met. As in all planning, this process is continuous and as new information becomes available and as the project progresses, changes will need to be made to aspects of the objectives and to the sequences of tasks that contribut
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1.6 Equity buybacks, de-listing and reversion to a ‘private’ company

Once its shares have been issued, a company has the option to buy back shares. Buybacks will occur if the company believes that it is overcapitalised and cannot generate a sufficiently high return on capital through its operations. Under these circumstances it is effectively saying to the investor ‘thanks but please now have some of your money back – you can probably make it work harder elsewhere’. A further reason for buybacks arises when a major capital restructuring is undertaken by
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Project debriefing

Individual interviews with key members of the project team, for example the managers of key stages, can encourage them to evaluate their performance and identify what they have learned. A structured debriefing process can be helpful, to include stakeholders as well as all the project team. This may take the form of a series of meetings, which draw conclusions about overall project performance and constraints, identify and review any new ways of working that were developed, and consider what c
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1.2 What is expected from projects?

  • The project may be expected to deliver financial benefits to the organisation.

  • In the public sector projects are usually expected to lead to social, economic and political outcomes.

All projects are different. The level of complexity differs and the context in which a project exists will affect it. There is no single right way to manage a project. All projects have customers.

There are three key dimensions to a projec
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Diverse perspectives on health and illness
Health, and the health of others, are concerns that impact us all. This album explores notions of health and happiness in relation to the lifestyles people lead and the services and support available to them. The range of information is eclectic and illuminating, offering a rare insight into societal niches from the participants themselves. From health workers to the homeless, this series of interviews and discussions emphasises the relationship between how people live their lives and the decisi
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The Adur Carers Project
This free course, The Adur Carers Project, will help you to understand how people feel about being carers, and what their main concerns are. The Adur Careers Project helps carers in the region to access necessary services and resources. The course features interviews with two people who are involved in the project. First published on Wed, 10 Feb
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An introduction to social work
Do you want to learn more about the social work role and develop your understanding of some of the theory associated with social work practice? This free course, An introduction to social work, begins by introducing key ideas, values, the social work process and the skills needed for social work practice. You will then move on to look at social work with individuals. Finally this OpenLearn course considers reflective practice. Author(s): Creator not set

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Introduction

This course helps you to explore the extent to which death and dying in western societies are medical events and what aspects of death and dying might be neglected as a consequence. The course covers the way that such things as medicine provide the context of the experiences associated with the end of life.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of level 2 study in Health & Social Care. If you found this interesting, take a look at the Open University module Death, Dying & Bereaveme
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6.3 Social work and the law in Scotland

In this course you will be asked to reflect on the meanings of both social work and law. You will find that these concepts are open to a range of possible definitions, and that the functions of social work and law can change depending on the practice context. Their meaning is also affected by the perspective from which they are viewed, for example, the service user's experience of social work and law will not always match the expectations of the professional or the perceptions of the general
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3.8 Sustainable Scotland

This broad-based course will introduce you to a number of different aspects of sustainability that impact on Scotland and the wider world. It wil appeal to anyone with an interest in a sustainable future in the context of contemporary Scottish society.

To access this material click on the course link below. It leads to a separate OpenLearn course and will open in a new window.

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