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2.5 Other aspects of writing

Now we will look at the way Philip and Hansa wrote and presented their essays. Did you find them both easy to read? As regards Philip's, my answer is, ‘yes and no’. It is sometimes easy because he has a fluent way with words. But it is often difficult because he does not use enough punctuation to help us make sense of his words, and because of certain mistakes he makes. I found Hansa's essay easier to read. Her writing is more technically correct and more assured than Philip's. But
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4 Conclusion

This course has explored the social impact of psychology and provided a brief historical overview to explore the diversity of psychology as a discipline. You have read about the different kinds of data that are used as evidence and the different types of methods used to gather these data. You have also gained an understanding of the ethical issues that need to be considered when conducting research.

The material for this course is taken from the introductory chapter to the course DSE21
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3.1 The Extended Schools initiative

The last few years have seen a plethora of initiatives for English schools: two significant initiatives are ‘Extended Schools’ and the ‘Every child Matters’. What are the implications for a business manager?

Government thinking places schools at the centre of local provision for a wide range of options, from health centres to full community facilities. These ‘extended schools’, as the government terms them, offer an opportunity for schools to contribute to and work more clos
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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2.1 The significance of geography as a subject

It has been argued that geography ‘has been hijacked by environmentalists’. Following the publication of his original article, ‘Constructing a value map’ (see under the link below), Alex Standish (a former geography teacher) appeared on the Radio 4 Today programme to discuss this topic. Listen to the interview again and read the transcript again by clicking on the link below.

Read Alex Standish's 'Constructing a value map' by clicking 'view document' below.


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Acknowledgements

Amanda Burrows is a graduate of Laban and gained an MA in Education from The Open University. She has taught dance in secondary schools, FE colleges, universities and in community settings. Amanda is currently Head of Curriculum for Visual, Performing Arts and Media at Grantham College, and has produced materials for the Open Univerity's Teachandlearn.net, repurposed here for openlearn.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see Author(s): The Open University

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4 Performance skills

Performance skills are those aspects that set dancing apart from mechanical movement. Often, our attention is drawn to the dancer who is using a range of performance skills effectively, because they stand out from the rest.

Performance skills are aspects such as:

  • focus;

  • projection;

  • musicality;

  • timing;

  • emphasis;

  • expression.

All of these aspects are connected
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1.2 The importance of grammar

We want you to start thinking about what exactly we mean by a term like ‘grammar’ and how and why grammar differs in speech and writing. For some of you this will revise and build on your knowledge of previous study. Activity 1 is a way of raising questions in your mind and you will find some answers or explanations in the rest of the course.


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1.1 La Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias

In this session you are going to learn how to describe places, in terms of both appearance and function, starting with a new technology park in Valencia, la Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias, a wonderful example of modern Spanish architecture.

Key learning points

  • Description of a famous public place

  • Adjectives: gender and number


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1. Introducing diversity and difference

This course focuses on issues of difference and diversity in a specific sense. Rather than analysing diversity in terms of kinds of communication and relationships, the focus here shifts to diversity in terms the people involved in interactions in care settings. Again, it is simple common sense to state that ‘good’ communication in health and social care services involves acknowledging and responding to the diverse needs and backgrounds of everyone involved, whether service
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6.1 Introduction

We have learnt that part of the reason the heart pumps blood around is to make sure that the body gets a fresh supply of oxygen. So in the same way that our hearts need to keep beating, we need to keep breathing oxygen into our lungs to survive. But what is the function of oxygen? Why does our body need oxygen, and what does it do with it once we have breathed it in? These are some of the questions that we will examine in first part of this section.

In the second part of this section, w
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Introduction

With the announcement of the summer Olympics coming to London in 2012, fierce competition between football clubs in the domestic league, and developments in coaching and training throughout all areas of physical fitness, there has never been a better time to learn more about sport. Many of us take for granted what we know about sport, whether we participate or spectate. But have you ever thought about delving deeper, to find out more about the sport you follow in particular and how it fits in
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3 Biographical perspective: using pathways

You will shortly be hearing excerpts from interviews with four men, who were contacted through the Swansea Cyrenians. They are all from very different backgrounds, and talk about their own experiences of homelessness.

The clips are only brief insights into life without a home, but they do demonstrate the importance of a biographical perspective in understanding the unique and diverse needs of individual homeless people.

Looking at situations from a biological perspective is
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand how some of the needs of homeless people can be met.


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2.4 Bringing your learning together in reflective practice

Consolidating your learning

In this section you are going to bring together the knowledge and skills you have gained so far and consider what is meant by ‘reflective practice’. You have been introduced to different ways of understanding the role of a social worker and the lives of the people social workers work with. You should have started to recognise the different aspects of what it means
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3.8 The centrality of consent

In the last 30 years there has been a strong move away from paternalism towards an emphasis on users' rights and involvement in the decision-making process. Nowadays, few users would accept treatment without knowing what it was or a health carer who withholds information about other treatment options. The importance of involving the user is exemplified by the need for practitioners to gain informed consent. This need to gain consent is enshrined in law, as well as being a central aspec
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3.7 Ethical practice and accountability: individual practitioners’ responsibilities

The dynamics and working practices of many CAM practitioners mean the therapeutic encounters are rarely supervised and no one looks over the practitioner's shoulder. This places the responsibility to act ethically squarely with the individual practitioner. A European study of the practice of CAM states:

Ethical issues are just as pertinent for conventional and unconventional medicine, alike. The labelling of a therapy
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2.8 The failure of CAM therapeutic relationships: wounded healers

Sometimes, practitioners allow their personal life and personal issues to become central to the therapeutic relationship. In a range of therapies, the practitioner is assumed to bring not only their skills but also their experiences to the therapeutic relationship. This has led to the concept of the ‘wounded healer’ (Nouwen, 1977): that is, a practitioner who, in experiencing physical, psychological or emotional pain, develops a greater understanding and empathy with other people's pain.
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2.7 The failure of CAM therapeutic relationships: breach of boundaries

In this section, failures caused by breach of boundaries are discussed under the following headings:

  • ‘wounded healers’

  • creating dependency to satisfy practitioners’ emotional and financial needs

  • sexual abuse and exploitation.

To reiterate a point made earlier, breaches of the therapeutic relationship cover a spectrum. Some breaches invariably thwart a successful therapeutic outcome (for example, when
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2.6 The failure of CAM therapeutic relationships

Although therapeutic relationships have the capacity to heal, they can also harm. In reality, the outcome of most therapeutic encounters and relationships lies somewhere on a continuum between good and harm. Few therapeutic relationships are a complete success but, judging by the number of complaints, even fewer are a complete disaster. Studies of therapeutic encounters invariably show high levels of patient satisfaction (see, for example, Sharma, 1992; Kelner et al., 2000). None the less, it
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