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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you will have:

  • developed your knowledge and understanding of the terminology associated with the culture, identity and power relevant to the Roman empire, as treated both in ancient sources and modern scholarship and presentation.


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2.1 The provinces

Controlling and governing the provinces was a substantial part of an emperor's remit. Here you will consider different ways in which the emperor had contact with his provincial subjects. You will work through some sections from books by Goodman and Lewis, and Reinhold and watch a short video sequence.

Exe
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1 The emperor and his subjects

The image of Augustus as a good emperor persisted after his death. This was due at least in part to the success and thoroughness of his own image creation. But it also reflected the interests of his immediate successors. The Julio-Claudian emperors (so named because they were connected by blood with Julius Caesar or the Claudian family of Tiberius – see the family tree in Wells, pp. 64–5) claimed power by descent and thus it generally assisted and justified their own position to celebrate
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2.3 The building of Thugga

So far we have been considering aspects of Thugga without taking into account the chronology of the site and its monuments. The following table lists the public buildings and monuments of Thugga which are securely dated by inscriptions and gives the date (as near as possible) of construction along with an assessment of how African or Roman they are.

<
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2.5.1 The reductionist perspective

Although theology had been thought of as ultimate knowledge, in post-Enlightenment thought, religion came to be seen by many in the West as a hindrance to progress and the advancement of human knowledge. Some came to believe that a rational and scientific way of looking at the world, unconstrained by religious belief and ‘superstition’, would lead to religion becoming redundant.

In the nineteenth century, this idea was boosted by Darwinian theories of evolution. Charles Darwin’s <
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2.3 Is religion a museum piece?

We have used the video sequence below to highlight the emic/etic problem and we would like you to carry out a short exercise using it to consolidate your understanding of these terms.

The video introduces St Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art in Glasgow, which has been described as the first public museum of religion in the world. Do note, however, that the Museum of Religions at the University of Marburg, Germany was founded in 1927 by Rudolf Otto. It contains a considerable number
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1.1 What are the issues?

Some themes recur when we start to think about religion. These include issues of continuity and change, representation, differing perspectives, authority, community and identity. In this unit we start to consider some of them in detail.

The full list of themes and issues considered in this section are:

  • Continuity and change

  • Representation

  • The Victoria and Albert Museum 'Sacred Spaces' exhibition of 2000


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2.1 An introduction to khyal singing

I now want to move on to explore the first of two case studies of non-Western music-traditions: North Indian art music, also known as Hindustani music. (There are two major art music traditions in South Asia; the other is known as South Indian or Carnatic.) In this section I will take you through a performance of music from this tradition and consider some of the questions posed by Author(s): The Open University

Acknowledgements

Prepared for the Course Team by Simon Buckingham Shum

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Tables

Tables 3.1 and
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4.7 Technologies and the tacit dimension continued

Box 4.5 Technology briefing: audiovisual Webcasting

The emergence of the internet and private, higher-capacity corporate intranets makes it possible to ‘broadcast’ over digital networks, saving time and money since staff do not have to physically gather in one location. The term webcasting
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References

Aisbitt, S. (2004) ‘Why did(n't) the accountant cross the road?’ OUBS working paper, 04/04.
Bromwich, M. (1992) Financial Reporting, Information and Capital Markets, (in particular Chapter Two ‘The market provision of accounting information’) London, Pitman Publishing.
Burchell, S., Clubb, C. and Hopwood, A. (1985) ‘Accounting in its social context: towards
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1.3 Managing the national economy

The earliest regulation in Europe was not motivated by stewardship concerns, but was aimed at small businesses whose owners did not take the trouble to measure the success of their business. Consequently they went into liquidation, often, as is the case with small business networks, taking other businesses down with them. The 1673 Savary Ordonnance in France, which is regarded as the first national accounting rule created in the world and was subsequently taken up into the French Comme
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Introduction

This unit examines how national practices for financial reporting have evolved and why different rules are in place within different jurisdications. In times past, imperialism and war have both been responsible for expanding financial rules across Europe and the world . More recently the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 in the United States has had the same, if unintentional, effect.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Issues in international financial reportin
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References

Barrett, S.M. (2006) ‘Implementation studies: time for a revival?’ in Budd, L., Charlesworth, J. and Paton, R. (eds) Making Policy Happen, London, Routledge/Milton Keynes, The Open University (Course Reader).
Barrett, S. and Fudge, C. (1981) Policy and Action, London, Methuen.
Budd, L., Charlesworth, J. and Paton, R. (eds) (2006) Making Policy Happen
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5 Conclusion

The argument underpinning this unit has stressed the dangers of seeing implementation as somehow separate from the policy process, or as just one stage within it. Instead it has been emphasised that it is vital to place implementation centrally within that process – involving negotiation, learning and adaptation. Others too have come to regard this as central to the policy process. In the first edition of their book on implementation, Pressman and Wildavsky emphasise the disjunction between
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2.5.1 Anglo-zone connections

Much of today's global interconnectedness has been shaped by the legacies of long-standing trading patterns, imperial expansion, colonisation and strategic military interventions. From the late seventeenth century to the mid twentieth century, Britain presided over the largest empire in global history – although expansion was tempered by adjustment as former colonies gained independence. With the benefit of hindsight, the American War of Independence (1775–1783) or the American Revolution
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Introduction

This unit looks at the management of local knowledge-generating practices. You will explore the processes that link practices to global contexts and learn to identify the key dimensions of globalisation and explore the implications for knowing how to ‘do things’ in a variety of contexts. You will go on to compare the approaches to managing and organising, based on universally applicable principles, with context-specific rationalities and look at how viable interpretations of reality might
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1 What does 'marketing' mean?

Activity 1

Before you start working through this unit, take a moment to write down what you understand by the term ‘marketing’, either on the basis of your previous studies or the everyday use of the term.

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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit, you should be able to:

  • describe accounting's primary objective;

  • explain what is meant by inputs to and outputs from the accounting information system;

  • explain the relationship between data, data processing, data summarisation and information;

  • explain the difference between data and information;

  • describe the five main characteristics of 'good' information;

  • explain the link between
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Activity 9: Go shopping with Geert Hofstede

Allow 60 minutes for this activity.

In the last few activities you have been exploring Hofstede's ideas. I now want to focus specifically on an issue which has already cropped up a couple of times. This is the impact that national culture has on organisations. One of Hofstede's main arguments is that it is important for business organisations to adapt their approaches to different national contexts.

Take the example of shopping. Income is an important influence on the thing
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