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1.6.1 Describing uniformly accelerated motion

An important special case of non-uniform motion along a line is that which arises when an object is subjected to constant acceleration. This kind of motion is called uniformly accelerated motion. An object falling under gravity near to the surface of the Earth, such as the apple of Figure 24, provides
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1.4.7 A note on straight-line graphs and their gradients

We end this section by reviewing some of the important features of straight-line graphs, though we do so in terms of two general variables z and y, rather than x and t, in order to emphasise their generality. If the graph of z against y is a straight line of the kind shown in Figure 22, then z and y are related by an equation of the form

<
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • explain the meaning of all the newly defined (emboldened) terms introduced in this unit;

  • draw, analyse and interpret position–time, displacement–time, velocity–time and acceleration–time graphs. Where appropriate, you should also be able to relate those graphs one to another and to the functions or equations that describe them, particularly in the case of straight-line graphs;

  • find the derivati
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2.2.2 Collimator

The dimensions of the emerging X-ray beam can be altered by the collimator. This helps to ensure that only the region of interest is exposed to the X-rays.


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Acknowledgements

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

T
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3.2 Angular size, actual size and distance

The angular size of an object is determined uniquely by its actual size and its distance from the observer. For an object of fixed size, the larger the distance, the smaller the angular size. For objects at a fixed distance, the larger the actual size of an object, the larger its angular size. For objects with small angular sizes, such as typical astronomical objects, the precise relationship between angular size, actual size and distance is well approximated by th
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4.1 The grizzly bear

There are three activities in Section 4, asking you to summarise information in the form of lists. In the first two, the answers are given but in the third, about the diet of the giant panda, they are not. You are asked to tick off the points in your list as you read on through the section. As you gain more stu
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3 Is specialisation always advantageous?

Specialisation generally implies the possession of adaptations that make animals particularly effective or efficient in one or more aspects of their lives. In many of the examples used in other units in this series, mammals are likely to possess adaptations related to the acquisition and/or processing of food.

Que
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6.1 Basic isotropy

As we have said, the photons in the 3 K background have been practically free from interaction with anything since about 4 × 105 years after the instant of the big bang. The present angular distribution of the microwave radiation – the way in which it is spread across the sky – is therefore almost the same as it was then. The spectrum we find today depends on the temperatures at that time – for the intensity of the radiation in a particular region of the early Unive
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7 Unit summary

Section 2

The law of conservation of charge applies locally at each point and time, so any variation of the total charge within a closed surface must be due to charges that flow across the surface of the region. This principle leads to the equation of continuity:

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5.1.4 Getting agreement with the no-monopole law

Substituting Equation 7.23 into the no-monopole law gives immediate agreement because

The no-monopole law is analogous to Gauss's law in empty space, and it leads to a similar conclusion: the magnetic wave must be transverse. This has already been established using Farada
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5.1 Electromagnetic waves

This section gives a brief introduction to light and electromagnetic waves.

The idea that light is an electromagnetic wave had occurred to Faraday while Maxwell was still a schoolboy, but Maxwell was the first person to possess a complete set of equations describing the dynamical behaviour of electric and magnetic fields. Believing that Faraday was correct, Maxwell set out to show that his equations have wave-like solutions that propagate through empty space at the speed of light.


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4.5 Endocrine disruptors

Then he was a she…

(Lou Reed, American rock singer)

In 1996, a book called Our Stolen Future was published, bringing to public attention a debate that had been simmering among biologists for some time. Written by Theo Colborn and two colleagues at the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), this book presented the hypothesis that certain industrial chemicals, commonly found as environmental pol
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Acknowledgements

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission:

Illustrat
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2.4 Sources of errors

The following is a list of common problems that can lead to medication errors. They fall into three broad categories according to where they occur in the sequence from a drug being prescribed to it being administered to a patient. As you can see, the same types of mistake can occur in each category. Those errors that involve maths are highlighted in italics:

Prescription errors

  • Wrong drug prescribed (contraindicated, or allergy, o
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2.1 Differences between accuracy and precision

Accuracy is a measure of how close a result is to the true value. Precision is a measure of how repeatable the result is. For instance, a group of three friends tried the shooting gallery at a fair and their targets are shown in Figure 6. The first person was an expert marksman, but they were using a rifle with sights that had not
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1.11 Addition and subtraction in practice – fluid balance

A common healthcare example that uses addition and subtraction involves calculating the fluid balance of a patient.

Fluid balance is a simple but very useful way to estimate whether a patient is either becoming dehydrated or overfilled with liquids. It is calculated, on a daily basis, by adding up the total volume of liquid that has gone into their body (drinks, oral liquid medicines, intravenous drips, transfusions), then adding up the total volume of liquid that has come out of their
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1.9 Addition of decimal numbers

If we add 109.8 ml of one liquid to 6.5 ml of another liquid, what would be the total volume of liquid in ml?

To compare 109.8 with 6.5, you need to remember that

Place the two numbers in a grid on top of each other and make sure that columns representing the same magnitude line up wit
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4.3.2 Stage 2: Embryonic ocean basin formation (southern Red Sea stage)

If extension and rifting progresses sufficiently, this will lead to the development of an embryonic ocean along the site of the earlier rift zone (see Figure 6b). Prior to true oceanic lithosphere being produced, basaltic magma will be repeatedly intruded into the continental lithosphere along fractures and shear
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3.10 Moon42: Apollo 15 station 10

James B. Irwin took this pan moments after he and Dave Scott arrived at Station 10. (QuickTime, 500KB, note: this may take some time to download depending on your connection speed)

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