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5.1 Introduction to the social construction of scientific knowledge

This section explores how scientific knowledge and scientific literacy can be built up through working in communities of practice (groups of people who work together and share a common language). We also look at issues relating to the ideas of subjectivity and objectivity, and at deductive and inductive thinking. Finally, we explore the public understanding of science by examining how society, in wider terms, constructs or influences scientific thinking and understanding.


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2.4.1 Estuarine species

Nutrient runoff from the land is a major source of nutrients in estuarine habitats. Shallow-water estuaries are some of the most nutrient-rich ecosystems on Earth, due to coastal development and the effects of urbanization on nutrient runoff. Figure 2.19 shows some typical nitrogen pathways. Nitrogen loadings in rainfall are typically assimilated by plants or denitrified, but septic tanks tend to add nitrogen below the reach of plant roots, and if situated near the coast or rivers can lead to
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Seeking Approval - A Question of Power, Gender or Culture
Seeking Approval - A Question of Power, Gender or Culture Featuring Dr Elizabeth Gower, Dr Leslie Cannold, Sushi Das and Dr Meagan Tyler a public program event for the exhibition Elizabeth Gower - he loves me, he loves me not RMIT Gallery 11 March - 23 April 2016
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National identity in Britain and Ireland, 1780–1840
What is a ‘nation’? What is a ‘state’? Where have these ideas come from and how have they developed over time? This free course, National identity in Britain and Ireland, 1780-1840, explores how the United Kingdom of Britain and Ireland was formed. It then moves to analyse the distinctions between the terms ‘nation’ and ‘state’. Finally, it evaluates the role of national identities in British popular politics during the first half of the nineteenth century.
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to c
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5.3.1 Regulations

A regulation is a Community act, which ‘shall have general application. It shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States.’ Regulations are directly applicable, which means that once they have become EU law they apply immediately in all EU member states. They do not need implementation by the member states.

Regulations come into force 20 days after their publication in the European Union's official journal, unless otherwise specified.


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11.1 What are they?

When you visit a website the chances are that it will deposit a cookie on your computer. A cookie is a plain text file that cannot pose any threat to your computer and cannot pass on viruses. Therefore, cookies are harmless. Or are they?

The cookie protocol was developed to enhance the experience of using the Web. The cookie that a website deposits on your computer contains information about that website. When you revisit the site it recognises you, or more accurately your computer, and
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2.3 Food chains and food webs

This section includes two graphs. Figure 2 has the standard numerical values on its axes, in this case years from 1830 to 1930 on the hor
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Mindfulness in mental health and prison settings
This free course, Mindfulness in mental health and prison settings, introduces the key ideas and practices of mindfulness, describes how it is helping counselling clients and prisoners, and also looks at some of the criticisms mindfulness has received in recent years. First published on Wed, 11 Apr 2018 as Author(s): Creator not set

1.1.4 Evaluating information

How well does the following statement describe your approach to evaluating the information that you use?

When I come across a new piece of information (e.g. a website, newspaper article) I consider the quality of the information, and based on that I decide whether or not to use it.

  • 5 – This is an excellent match; this is exactly what I do


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2.2 A modern view

Modern attempts to define engineering recognise the importance of the resources identified by Sage, and that the subject can be divided into two components: engineering knowledge – the ‘know-what’, and engineering process – the ‘know-how’. Engineering knowledge is:

[…] the growing body of facts, experience and skills in science, engineering and technology disciplines; coupled to an understanding of th
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1.6 The quark-lepton era (contd)

The next stage of the story is to look at how and when the original mixture of all types of quark and lepton that were present when the Universe was 10−11 s old, gave rise to the Universe today, which seems to be dominated by protons, neutrons and electrons.

Question 8


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2008.03.05-The Public Understanding of Science
The Public Understanding of Science: Report commissioned by British Gov. Sir Arnold Wolfendale, FRS 14th Astronomer Royal, Great Britain Co-sponsor ? College of Science
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6.2.1 Quoting from written texts

We have seen that when you are discussing a poem, you talk about its ‘rhythms’ or movement, its patterns of sound such as ‘rhyme’, and its ‘imagery’ and ‘syntax’, quoting words, phrases and lines from the poem as evidence of the points you want to make about it. And this applies to play-texts and novels, too. As you discuss the ‘characters’ involved, you quote parts of their ‘dialogue’ or passages from the ‘narrator's’ descriptions of them. You also quote
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3.2.7 Ways that groups go wrong

Before leaving Reading 2, it is worth mentioning some of the characteristic ways that groups 'go wrong'. Why should a group, asked to design a camel, produce a horse? You might expect that when we pool the talents, experience and knowledge of a group, the result would be better, not worse, than that of any individual member. But as groups design 'horses' so frequently there must be some fairly familiar decision-making processes at work. Probably the most common problems are those that have al
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Vector Fields and Hydrodynamics
At first glance, replacing the old idea of action at a distance by the new idea of the field of force seems to e an exercise in semantics. But it isn't, because fields have definite properties of their own suitable for scientific study. For example, electric fields are different in form from magnetic fields, and both kinds can better be understood by analogy to field of
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Mathematics & Statistics. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance, and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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2.9 The failure of CAM therapeutic relationships: creating dependency to satisfy practitioners' emot

Although a failed therapeutic relationship is often assumed to involve a patient not returning, the case of a patient who attends repeatedly can also be highly problematic. This phenomenon can be seen as a breach of boundaries in that an inappropriately extended therapeutic relationship changes from being a healing encounter into a dependency relationship or friendship. Unlike the timescale contracts that may be negotiated in counselling and psychotherapy, there are no fixed timescales for mo
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5 Hyperbolic functions

In Section 4 we introduce the hyperbolic functions sinh, cosh and tanh, which are constructed from exponential functions. These hyperbolic functions share some of the properties of the trigonometric functions but, as you will see, their graphs are very different.

Click the link below to open Section 4 (5 pages, 104KB).

Section 4


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Entrainment
Open University ethnomusicologist Martin Clayton describes how his study of music and its performance in different cultural settings has allowed him to develop his understanding of the concept of entrainment. His research into this phenomenon is providing key insights into the synchronisation of rhythmic processes in humans and in the natural world.
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