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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • list the skills and knowledge needed to conduct full and fair recruitment and selection, and be able to undertake it systematically.


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3 Factors influencing culture

Where the culture of a business comes from, and how it develops, is the subject of much discussion within business studies. Every commentator seems to have their own list of key factors. One example is by Drennan (1992), who proposes twelve key factors that shape the culture of a business. These are:

  1. the influence of a dominant leader – the vision, management style and personality of the founder or leader in a business often has a significant influe
    Author(s): The Open University

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References

de Mooj, M. (2003) ‘Convergence and divergence in consumer behaviour: implications for global advertising’, International Journal of Advertising, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 183–202.
Hofstede, G. (c. 2007a) ‘A summary of my ideas about organizational cultures’ Geert Hofstede's Homepage [online] http://feweb.uvt.nl.center/hofstede/page4.htm (accessed 15 December 2007).
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Activity 10: Critical reflections on Hofstede

Allow 60 minutes for this activity.

You have spent most of this unit working with Hofstede's ideas. He is one of the pioneers of the study of national culture and its impact on organisations, and his work has been very influential.

My aim so far has been to help you understand Hofstede's cultural dimensions and to become familiar with how they can be used to analyse one of the main environments within which organisations operate. National culture is also one of the factors
Author(s): The Open University

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Activity 8: Exploring cultural dimensions on Hofstede's website

Allow 60 minutes for this activity.

You have now explored how different people can have different perceptions and how national culture may be one reason why this is the case. You have spent some time too looking at one explanation of national culture and the differences between countries. Hofstede's ideas are quite complex and, for this reason, this activity is an opportunity for you to consolidate your understanding of Geert Hofstede's research.

In this activity you will d
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Activity 7: Hofstede's way of thinking about national culture

Allow 60 minutes for this activity.

Activity 6 introduced you to Hofstede's academic writing. This activity takes this further by giving you the chance to take a closer look at what he actually said.

Author(s): The Open University

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Activity 4: What do you see?

Allow 60 minutes for this activity.

Now that you have understood the nature of national culture and how it is manifested in your context, the following activities will help you to appreciate why it matters. Culture influences your way of thinking. Indeed Hofstede argues that it is a ‘given’ for organisations and therefore also influences the way in which organisations are managed.

This activity will help you to understand why culture matters by helping you to see how di
Author(s): The Open University

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Activity 2: Differences between national culture and organisational culture

Allow 30 minutes for this activity.

Activity 1 introduced you to national and organisational culture by helping you to develop suitable definitions. This activity will help you to understand more about culture. It looks at differences between national culture and organisational culture. It wil
Author(s): The Open University

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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • identify some fundamental dimensions of national and organisational culture;

  • differentiate between various national and organisational cultures;

  • discuss ways in which culture influences organisational environments;

  • critically apply theories on culture to organisations and the environments in which they operate;

  • demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which organisationa
    Author(s): The Open University

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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

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Conclusions

You have learned about different work settings and the broader understanding of work used in BU130. We expect that most of the learning and studying students do for BU130 will relate to job settings, but this need not necessarily be the case. Studying this module gives you the opportunity to identify the learning that you want to do and where you want to do it.

References

Touching
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Activity 3: Where is the learning?

Allow 40 minutes for this activity.

What we call ‘learning’ has three very important characteristics. These are:

  • learning is an ongoing process
  • learning is linked to experience
  • learning is the development of skills and new approaches to what we do.

Learning as a process

Learning is an ongoing process and not simpl
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Learning outcomes

Work, of course, does not just mean the work you do when you are employed by an organisation. Many people are self-employed, do voluntary work or work to care for others in unpaid roles. You will read more about this broader definition of work below. There may also be a number of reasons why you would want to use this module to improve your working life. You might, for example, want to:

  • improve your work performance

  • enhance your promotion chances

  • c
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Module team

Dr Terry O'Sullivan, Course Chair

Barry Jones, Course Manager

Sue Treacy, Course Team Assistant

Sam Cooper, OU Business School Regional Coordinator

Joan Hunt, OU Business School Regional Manager

Amanda Shepard, Institute of Fundraising

Production Team

Simon Ashby, Editor

Paul Beeby, Media Project Manager

Martin Brazier, Graphic Design
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References

Institute of Fundraising (2006) The Good Fundraising Guide: Where to start… London [online], Institute of Fundraising, http://www.institute-of-fundraising.org.uk/documents/good_fundraising_guide.pdf (Accessed 20 April 2007).
Lloyd, T. (2006) Cultural Giving, London, Directory of Social Change.
Mellor, P. (1983) ‘Advertising for legacy income’ in Norton, M
Author(s): The Open University

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6 Summary

Here is a summary of the main learning points from this unit:

  • The vast majority of people only become donors by being asked.

  • Acknowledging your own feelings about asking is an important step in becoming confident in this key skill.

  • A behavioural approach to asking concentrates on analysing and performing a sequence of activity: choosing the moment, setting the participants at ease, establishing mutuality, explanation,
    Author(s): The Open University

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5 Legacy fundraising

Legacies are an extremely important source of income for many charities. In the UK they represent well over a quarter of the total income from individuals of the top 500 fundraising charities, with a particularly strong showing in healthcare and animal charities (Sargeant and Jay, 2004). Slightly fewer than half of adults in the UK have written wills, but more than one in ten of those who do, leave charitable bequests (Radcliffe, 2007). Figures like this suggest there is plenty of potential t
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4.3 The ‘maximum potential’ or ‘major support’ approach

It may be that your organisational resources and contacts do not permit a ‘top-down’ strategy of this nature. But that should not prevent you from adopting a big gift orientation. As you saw in relation to the donor matrix, it is better to think of a big gift as ‘the maximum contribution a donor can make’ rather than a fixed sum of money or measure of active support. The Pareto principle predicts that in any appeal or programme you are likely to secure the bulk of your target from a r
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3.6.3 Balancing emotional commitment with awareness and understanding

People's first donation is often prompted by an instinctive and emotional response to a direct appeal. Very rarely is it an informed or carefully calculated decision. Building on that initial response requires you to balance a recognition of your donors’ emotional investment with a need to develop their understanding and awareness of your cause and concerns – the head and heart messages central to your case statement. See Author(s): The Open University

3.4 Communicating your request

There is a real tension between being both personal and impersonal at the same time, appealing to individuals as you appeal to thousands. The widespread aversion to junk mail, telephone selling and email spamming means you have only a brief moment to capture the interest and attention of your audience. This poses a dilemma: how to persuade your audience that your case warrants this attention without the dangers associated with using shock tactics, being too slick or gimmicky. Through careful
Author(s): The Open University

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