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3.2 Who is the customer?

Customers are people who buy our products and services, and may or may not use them. The key to defining these people as ‘customers’ is that each engages in an exchange relationship that adds value to the organisation providing the product or service. Consumers do not give any value to organisations – there is no exchange relationship. They use products and services, but do not buy them.

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Introduction

This unit is divided into two sections: ‘Understanding market orientation’ and ‘Managing a market-led organisation’. In Section 1 ‘Understanding market orientation’ sets out different approaches to marketing. I argue that marketing should not be the property of just the marketing department but an organisation-wide philosophy that centres on satisfying customers. The way in which marketing ideas can be applied to non-profit organisations is also discussed.

In Section 2 ‘Ma
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5.4.1 Introduction and Starting

In a panel interview one member will need to take the chair; this person will then be responsible for initiating, controlling and closing the interview. It is also the role of the chair to link and control the contributions of the panel members.

If you are the chair, you should always introduce the panel members to the candidate and explain how the interview will be conducted. A relaxed and skilful lead interviewer will then continue to establish and maintain rapport throughout the exch
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4.5 Person specification

Once the job and organisational analyses and the job description have been completed (see Figure 1), the next stage is to write a specification of the kind of person needed to fill the job you have just described. It is important to be as precise as possible about the skills, knowledge, qualifications and at
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4.3 Organisational analysis

The broader organisational requirements can be as important as the specific ones for the job itself. The organisation needs creativity, flexibility, the ability to work in a small team, and so on, from the job holder. In line with the person-organisation fit described earlier, it is important to think beyond the technical aspects of the job to the cultural aspects of the organisation.


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4.2 Job analysis

Job analysis involves examining a job systematically and in detail. There is no single way of doing this. Direct observation may be helpful if you are analysing repetitive manual jobs, for example. Discussion with the current job holder and supervisor or line manager is also a useful source of information. Another method of job analysis is to use the checklist approach illustrated in Author(s): The Open University

3.3 Person–organisation fit

This approach stresses that people's behaviour and performance are strongly influenced by the environment in which they find themselves. So being successful in a job in one organisation does not necessarily imply success in a similar job in another. In assessing the suitability of a job applicant a manager should explore the reasons why a person has performed well in their existing job and consider whether similar conditions apply in the new job. Advocates of the person-organisation fit appro
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1 Overview

The unit begins by looking at how it can be difficult for a manager in the process of recruitment and selection to maintain objectivity. Drawing up clear criteria to use throughout recruitment and selection can help the process. It then addresses the difference between the person–job and person–organisation approaches to recruitment. Subsequent sections review the different tasks to be completed and the different methods which can be used by the manager in this important process.


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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • list the skills and knowledge needed to conduct full and fair recruitment and selection, and be able to undertake it systematically.


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3 Factors influencing culture

Where the culture of a business comes from, and how it develops, is the subject of much discussion within business studies. Every commentator seems to have their own list of key factors. One example is by Drennan (1992), who proposes twelve key factors that shape the culture of a business. These are:

  1. the influence of a dominant leader – the vision, management style and personality of the founder or leader in a business often has a significant influe
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References

de Mooj, M. (2003) ‘Convergence and divergence in consumer behaviour: implications for global advertising’, International Journal of Advertising, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 183–202.
Hofstede, G. (c. 2007a) ‘A summary of my ideas about organizational cultures’ Geert Hofstede's Homepage [online] http://feweb.uvt.nl.center/hofstede/page4.htm (accessed 15 December 2007).
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Activity 10: Critical reflections on Hofstede

Allow 60 minutes for this activity.

You have spent most of this unit working with Hofstede's ideas. He is one of the pioneers of the study of national culture and its impact on organisations, and his work has been very influential.

My aim so far has been to help you understand Hofstede's cultural dimensions and to become familiar with how they can be used to analyse one of the main environments within which organisations operate. National culture is also one of the factors
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Activity 8: Exploring cultural dimensions on Hofstede's website

Allow 60 minutes for this activity.

You have now explored how different people can have different perceptions and how national culture may be one reason why this is the case. You have spent some time too looking at one explanation of national culture and the differences between countries. Hofstede's ideas are quite complex and, for this reason, this activity is an opportunity for you to consolidate your understanding of Geert Hofstede's research.

In this activity you will d
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Activity 7: Hofstede's way of thinking about national culture

Allow 60 minutes for this activity.

Activity 6 introduced you to Hofstede's academic writing. This activity takes this further by giving you the chance to take a closer look at what he actually said.

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Activity 4: What do you see?

Allow 60 minutes for this activity.

Now that you have understood the nature of national culture and how it is manifested in your context, the following activities will help you to appreciate why it matters. Culture influences your way of thinking. Indeed Hofstede argues that it is a ‘given’ for organisations and therefore also influences the way in which organisations are managed.

This activity will help you to understand why culture matters by helping you to see how di
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Activity 2: Differences between national culture and organisational culture

Allow 30 minutes for this activity.

Activity 1 introduced you to national and organisational culture by helping you to develop suitable definitions. This activity will help you to understand more about culture. It looks at differences between national culture and organisational culture. It wil
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • identify some fundamental dimensions of national and organisational culture;

  • differentiate between various national and organisational cultures;

  • discuss ways in which culture influences organisational environments;

  • critically apply theories on culture to organisations and the environments in which they operate;

  • demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which organisationa
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

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Conclusions

You have learned about different work settings and the broader understanding of work used in BU130. We expect that most of the learning and studying students do for BU130 will relate to job settings, but this need not necessarily be the case. Studying this module gives you the opportunity to identify the learning that you want to do and where you want to do it.

References

Touching
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Activity 3: Where is the learning?

Allow 40 minutes for this activity.

What we call ‘learning’ has three very important characteristics. These are:

  • learning is an ongoing process
  • learning is linked to experience
  • learning is the development of skills and new approaches to what we do.

Learning as a process

Learning is an ongoing process and not simpl
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