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1.2 Response to winter: understanding at different levels

Winter in a temperate region poses a number of environmental problems for organisms. Most obviously, average temperatures are lower than at other times of year and there are frequent frosts. Frost is highly significant for living organisms because water forms such a large proportion of their body tissues; for the great majority of organisms, freezing of their tissues leads to death. Secondly, because, as shown in Table 1.1, many adult organisms die, go into hiding or migrate in winter, many o
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1.8 Primordial nucleosynthesis

Time: 100 s to 1000 s

Temperature: 109 K to 3 × 108 K

Energy: 300 keV to 100 keV

As the temperature continued to decrease, protons and neutrons were able to combine to make light nuclei. This marked the beginning of the period referred to as the era of primordial nucleosynthesis (which literally means ‘making nuclei’). The first such reaction to become energetically favoured was that of a single proton and neutron comb
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1.6 The quark-lepton era (contd)

The next stage of the story is to look at how and when the original mixture of all types of quark and lepton that were present when the Universe was 10−11 s old, gave rise to the Universe today, which seems to be dominated by protons, neutrons and electrons.

Question 8

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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you be able to:

  • discuss the sequence of the events that are believed to have taken place in the history of the Universe, particularly the particle reactions that occurred in the first few minutes after the Big Bang, and the role of unified theories in explaining those events;

  • manipulate large and small numbers in scientific notation, and calculate values for quantities when given appropriate numerical information.


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Introduction

This unit explores origins of the Universe by looking in detail at events immediately following the Big Bang. Starting with looking at the cooling of the very early Universe, the unit then moves on to the inflation era, the quark-lepton and the hadron era. Then the unit looks at how fundamental particles began to synthesise to form nuclei, and from here it discusses the development of larger structures like stars and galaxies. By examining closely the forces in play and the interactions of fu
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Unit Image

Calum Davidson

All other materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.

1. Join the 200,000 students currently studying withAuthor(s): The Open University

6: Summary

All objects, irrespective of their mass, experience the same acceleration g when falling freely under the influence of gravity at the same point on the Earth. Close to the Earth's surface, g=9.8 m s−2. The weight of an object is the force F g due to gravity acting on the object, and for an object with mass m the weight is given by F g=mg.

If the height of an object of mass m changes by Δh, the ch
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Introduction

From the moment that Galileo dropped two cannonballs of different sizes and weights from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa mankind has been fascinated by the impact of gravity. This unit looks at gravity, its impact on objects and how the energy involved in the movement of objects is dispersed or stored.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extract from How the universe works (S197) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, yo
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4.3 Seismic energy

It is also possible to relate magnitude to the seismic energy released by an earthquake. An increase of one unit on the Richter scale represents an increase of about 40 times in the amount of seismic energy released.

Question 2

What i
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1 Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin (1809–1882) briefly studied medicine in Edinburgh before going to Cambridge intending to become an Anglican clergyman. Soon after the voyage of the Beagle (1831–1836), during which he was gentleman companion to Captain FitzRoy, Darwin became convinced that biological evolution had occurred and saw how it could have been brought about by natural selection. Despite having gathered massive amounts of supporting evidence, Darwin refrained from publishing his revol
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Learning outcomes

At the end of this unit you should know that:

  • By biological evolution we mean that many of the organisms that inhabit the Earth today are different from those that inhabited it in the past.

  • Natural selection is one of several processes that can bring about evolution, although it can also promote stability rather than change.

  • The four propositions underlying Darwin's theory of evolution through natural selection are: (1) more individuals are produced
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1.4.8 Summary

In this section we have introduced you to the PROMPT checklist as a useful tool for assessing the quality of any piece of information. If you use it regularly you will find that you develop the ability to scan information quickly and identify strengths and weaknesses. As a closing exercise you might like to pick one of the websites below or any of your own choice and try to evaluate it using the PROMPT criteria. To make it easier for you we have provided a printable checklist (see below).


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3.1.1 (A) Science and certainty

Pupils should appreciate why much scientific knowledge, particularly that taught in school science, is well established and beyond reasonable doubt, and why other scientific knowledge is more open to legitimate doubt. It should also be explained that current scientific knowledge is the best that we have but may be subject to change in the future, given new evidence or new interpretation of old evidence.


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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit, you should be able to:

  • demonstrate an understanding of problems associated with defining the Nature of Science;

  • write in an informed way about the purposes of compulsory science education;

  • be aware of the educational complications and implications associated with the phrase ‘the public understanding of science’;

  • show an ability to comment critically on curriculum proposals that aim to promote science citi
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Parliament and the law
How are rules made and who can influence this procedure? This unit will introduce you to the rule-making processes in of the UK Houses of Parliament in Westminster. You will examine how laws are enacted and how it is possible for unelected bodies and people to influence the content of such laws. First published on Wed, 15 Jun 2011 as Author(s): Creator not set

Introduction

This unit considers the growth of human rights and humanitarian law before looking at the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) in detail. It will also look at the position of human rights in the UK and the effect of the Human Rights Act 1998.

This study unit is an adapted extract relevant to The Open University course W100 Rules, rights and justice: an introduction to law, which is no longer taught by the University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to ex
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Copyright © 2013 The Open University

Starting with law
Starting with law explores key legal concepts such as legal capacity and the rights and responsibilities of the individual. You will examine how laws are made, and how they affect us at different points in our lives. This unit is ideal if you are a beginner or returning to study. First published on Fri, 15 Jun 2012 as Author(s): Creator not set

Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

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9.5 Tables

Using a table or just a set of columns can help you to analyse information and ideas. You can vary the number of columns and rows as needed. The following activity provides an opportunity for you to summarise information in a table.

Activity 7: Completing a table


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9.3 Linear notes

This is the most common form of note-taking. It involves writing in sequence the points you want to note. As with all note-taking, the aim is to pick out and record the most important points. Avoid simply writing out most or all of the text again.

Try to write your notes in your own words as this will help you understand what you have been reading about. Also add a reference to which page(s) of the text your notes refer so you can easily find your way back to the relevant part of the te
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