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4.3.2 Setting goals and objectives

Whatever the structure and culture of an organisation and the range of people involved, goals and objectives are usually seen as a valuable management tool. This is as relevant to a project team as it is to a whole organisation. What I will focus on here are some of the tensions and ambiguities surrounding the management of goals, especially in the context of team development. To be effective in clarifying and achieving the team task, we need to take account of the variety of (often conflicti
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4.6 Systems engineering: the recent development of a discipline

The recent development of systems engineering can be dated from two events. First, following the lead of the US Department of Defense and its introduction of standards for contractors, systems engineering was taken up by companies such as Boeing, Lockheed Martin and, in the UK, British Aerospace, Marconi and the Lucas Group. Second, in August 1990, a group of individuals interested in systems engineering met in Seattle (Box 10 – extract from a paper presented at the International Committee
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Introduction

This unit focuses on the Forth Road Bridge that connects Edinburgh with Fife. This suspension bridge continues to face a number of problems regarding its deteriorating condition. The short video included in this unit illustrates some of the major structural issues facing bridges and examines some of the proposed changes to the use of the Forth Road Bridge to help increase its lifespan.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Author(s): The Open University

5.15 Summary of Section 5

It is probably worth summarising some of the main points you should take away from this section on primary vibrators. The first thing to remember is that when an instrument is excited, it vibrates strongly at certain frequencies called natural (or resonance) frequencies. The reason for this is that standing waves are set up in the instrument's primary vibrator at these frequencies. The next thing to note is that some primary vibrators, such as a string or an air column, have natural frequenci
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19 Part 3: 3 Sustaining and disruptive innovation

Once an innovation starts diffusing into the marketplace it can have differing degrees of impact. As mentioned in Part 1, although innovations generally offer progress, there are some that complement existing ways of doing things and some that are more dramatic in their impact. In his book called The Innovator's Dilemma Clayton M. Christensen (2003) labels these two types of innovation sustaining and disruptive.

Sustaining innovations are those that improve the performance of est
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9.1.5 Immersion

Click on the 'View document' link below to read Jordan on 'Immersion'.

View document16.1KB PDF document<
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9.1.3 Take the trip

Third, set out and take the trip and record actions, impressions, ideas and thoughts.


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3.3 Physical characteristics of natural waters

A river's physical characteristics include:

  • clarity/turbidity

  • colour

  • speed of flow/turbulence

  • odour

  • the presence of plants and macroscopic animal life.

The physical characteristics are determined by location, geology and climate of the catchment area. In turn they influence the chemical and biological characteristics of the watercourse.

The physical appearance m
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Learning outcomes

When you have completed your work on this unit you should have developed:

  • a knowledge of key aspects of William Wilberforce’s political career and writings, and an appreciation of their historical and religious significance;

  • an awareness of the relationship of Evangelicalism to cultural transitions between the Enlightenment and Romanticism;

  • an understanding of the contribution of religion to cultural, social and political change in Britain in the
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References

Anon. (1861) ‘Carte de visite portraits’, The Photographic News, vol.5, no. 150, pp.341–2.
Anon. (1863) ‘Photography and bad taste’, The Photographic News, vol.7, no.240, 10 April, pp. 174–5. Reprinted from the London Review.
Anon. (1884) ‘By the bye – the stronger will’, The Photographic News, vol.28, no. 1346, p.388.

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2.3 The building of Thugga

So far we have been considering aspects of Thugga without taking into account the chronology of the site and its monuments. The following table lists the public buildings and monuments of Thugga which are securely dated by inscriptions and gives the date (as near as possible) of construction along with an assessment of how African or Roman they are.

<
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3.2 Who is the customer?

Customers are people who buy our products and services, and may or may not use them. The key to defining these people as ‘customers’ is that each engages in an exchange relationship that adds value to the organisation providing the product or service. Consumers do not give any value to organisations – there is no exchange relationship. They use products and services, but do not buy them.

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Introduction

Culture is just one perspective that can help us to understand more about a business. 'Business culture' is not just about how others see a business, but also about how the individuals within an organisation understand it. In this unit we explore how the concept of culture developed from research into differences between cultures at a national level. It is possible to see, or ‘feel’, that one business is different from another, and that this involves more than just how it presents itself
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4.2.6 Getting agreement to the chosen solution

It is important to establish consensus as far as possible within the project team on the best solution, and to record your decision. Depending on your reporting arrangements and the severity of the problem, you may then need to prepare a formal report with recommendations for action and take it to the project sponsor(s) for agreement. Solutions have to be ‘sold’ to ensure that they are acceptable.


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4.2.5 Choosing the best option

When you have collected a broad range of options, each possible solution should be assessed for its feasibility. As the feasible options are narrowed down, you may choose to analyse three or four in detail. Appraise the possible consequences of implementing each of these, against your criteria for cost, time and quality.


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1 The planning phase

Once the project brief has been agreed by the project sponsors and approved by the main stakeholders, you can move into the detailed planning phase. The project plan can become a working tool that helps to keep the project team focused on the project's tasks and activities and points them towards completion. It enables managers to keep track of resources, time and progress towards achieving objectives.

All projects are different and the planning for each will be different. The difficult
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7.2 The importance of the market and the state: neo-liberalism and neo-Marxism

To begin with neo-liberalism, it is a key premise that the market is the primary means of coordinating economic activity, including the allocation of people to jobs. This assumes that rational actors make judgements about their earnings prospects to decide their best options – training to improve employability, as in Mandy's case, or accepting subsistence-level earnings, as Tamarla Owens did. To neo-liberals, both Mandy and Tamarla Owens would have used information they gleaned in their eve
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Introduction

This unit takes one aspect of the debate concerning the new economy – innovation in the form of the introduction of information and communication technologies – and places it in the historical context of industrial revolutions. Is the new economy really new or ‘just another’ industrial revolution?

This unit is an adapted extract from the course Economics and economic change (
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5.4 Inclusion and exclusion

Contemporary Europe is, like that of earlier times, divided on several counts and reflects the continuing existence of several major identities. Individuals and groups invariably have several, overlapping or nested, identities at the same time. But there is also a hierarchy of different identities, with some groups having preferential access to particular European values and resources and others being partly or wholly excluded from them. Contemporary patterns of inclusion and exclusion
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5.2.4 Risk treatment

The risk treatment task is again carried out at unit level, in light of polices set out in Stages 1 to 3. The risks treated are those chosen for control at Stage 6.

  • Stage 7: select control objectives and controls For each risk chosen for control at Stage 6, a suitable control (countermeasure) must be selected from those suggested in the Standard or from elsewhere. The risks are treated in order of priority, according to the priority levels as
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