Pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 11758 result(s) returned

2.5.4. Choosing the right words and phrases

Both Philip and Hansa occasionally use words and phrases that don't really do the job they want. We saw, for instance, that Philip uses the word ‘resemblance’ when actually he means ‘contrast’. Here are some other examples from his writing.

Philip's words More accurate words
Paragraph 1
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1.3.1 Reading guide

There is a lot to think about in this course, particularly if you work carefully through all the examples and activities, which are mainly in section 2. I suggest you take the course in five stages:

  1. Up to the end of section 2.1

  2. Section 2.2

  3. Section 2.3

  4. Sections 2.4 and 2.5

  5. Section 2.6

  6. Sections 3 and 4.

Alternatively, simply stop reading closely when you feel you h
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1.2 What is an essay?

The different arts and humanities subjects make their own particular demands on you. You may have to do various kinds of writing – diaries, logs, project reports, case-studies – or even write creatively. In this chapter, though, we are going to concentrate on the essay because that is by far the most common form of writing in arts and humanities subjects.

The word ‘essay’ originally meant ‘an attempt’ or try at something, but now it usually means a short piece of writing on
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3.3.1 Mapmaking for the twenty-first century

In early mapmaking history, maps were compiled from travellers’ tales, sailors’ logs and other maps. Information could, therefore, come from various sources and different dates. By the nineteenth century, maps were being made by more technically and scientifically rigorous procedures. Recently, mapmaking has benefited from developments in electronic surveillance techniques and computer programming. The Ordnance Surveys are now using aerial photography coupled with detailed checking on the
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Panic attacks: what they are and what to do about them
Panic attacks: what they are and what to do about them is a free course that should be helpful to anyone who experiences panic or panic attacks, for their family and friends, and anyone more generally interested in mental health and mental health treatment. The course starts by exploring formal definitions of panic and panic attack. These are then contrasted with personal accounts of the experience of panic. It also presents some of the key understandings of why panic attacks happen, and pr
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

References

Ashworth, P. (2003) ‘An approach to phenomenological psychology: the contingencies of the lifeworld’, Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 145–56.
Bordo, S. (1993) Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture and the Body, Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.
Burkitt, I. (1999) Bodies of Thought: Embodiment, Identity and M
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References

Aaron, P.G., Wleklinski, M. and Wills, C. (1993) ‘Developmental dyslexia as a cognitive style’, in Joshi, R.M. and Leong, C.K. (eds) Reading Disabilities: Diagnosis and Component Processes , Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Adams, M.J. (1990) Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print , Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.
Anderson, R., Hiebert, E
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2.5.1 Highly unsaturated fatty acids

As we saw in Section 1, ‘medical’ approaches to some psychological conditions have focused on biochemistry and the use of corresponding drug treatments. Very little research of this kind has been applied to dyslexia. However, emerging evidence suggests that there may be a biochemical contribution involving abnormal metabolism of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) – essential substances that play a key role in brain development and the maintenance of normal brain function. In f
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2.1 Behavioural, cognitive and biological perspectives

So far we have discussed what contributes to our ideas of ‘abnormality’ and these issues have been illustrated by examining the real-life example of dyslexia. We will now consider the different potential explanations that have been offered to account for the observed symptoms of dyslexia.

Uta Frith (1999) has provided a useful framework for thinking about the nature of developmental difficulties (see Figure 2).

Frith suggests that there are three main perspectives on any given
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1.7.3 Differentiating dyslexia from other developmental conditions

While dyslexia is distinctive, there are other developmental syndromes that often co-occur with it. Examples include:

  • developmental dysphasia – specific difficulties with spoken language

  • attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder – involving particular problems with concentration and/or behaviour

  • developmental dyspraxia – developmental coordination disorder.

Developmental dysphasia

Developm
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1.5.2 Discrepancy definitions

The label is given if there is a discrepancy between perceived potential to learn to read (as indicated by general ability) and actual level of reading achievement.

The most common way of diagnosing dyslexia is to look for a discrepancy between someone's general ability as measured by an IQ assessment and his or her performance on standardised measures of reading and spelling. However, there are
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1.4.1 What is dyslexia?

Dyslexia involves difficulties in learning to read and write. However, this is not the only form of difficulty that people with dyslexia experience. They usually have particular difficulties with coding, learning and retrieving associations between verbal and visual information. The most obvious example is when we have to learn what sounds the letters of the alphabet make, but this difficulty can also affect the speed with which dyslexic people are able to learn and recall the names fo
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2 How to start SPSS

Activity 1

0 hours 20 minutes

This activity shows you how to start the SPSS software, and open any SPSS files that you might have saved on your computer.

You will be asked t
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References

BECTA (2002) BFI Evaluation Report of the BECTA DV Pilot Project. Available to downloadhere.

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2 Starting to use DV

DV, therefore, is a learning and teaching tool that has a lot to offer and one we cannot afford to ignore. Increasingly, DV will become an essential part of the teacher's ‘toolbox’, but it is one whose use has to be planned, in order for it to be effective.

Click on the following link to view the BFI Evaluation Report; for background information click on BECTA DV Pilot Project.

This course aims to familiarise you with the techniques and concepts of DV and to help you consider
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6.2.3 Employers' organisations

The main employers' organisations are the CBI (click on the link and then go to ‘policy work’ and on to issues of employment policy) and the IoD , where, again, the focus is on issues affecting the business side of employment and work.


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6.2.2 Industrial relations

In addition to these two government departments dealing with working conditions, the UK system of industrial relations has the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS), a semi-independent body that mainly deals with dispute resolution issues between workers and employers. At its website there is information on employment rights, time off, worker consultation, trade union representation, equality and discrimination, parents at work, pay, discipline and dismissal.

The
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References

Jones, T. (1999) ‘Art and Lifelong Learning’, Journal of Art and Design Education, 18 (1), p. 138.

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1.4 Subject knowledge

Subject knowledge is a critical factor at every point in the teaching process: in planning, assessing and diagnosing, task setting, questioning, explaining and giving feedback.

(Alexander et al., 1992, paragraph 77)

Subject knowledge, which lies at the heart of this course, comes in different forms. One well-known typology (Shulman, 1986) identifies three kinds:

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1.1 An overview of the course

The relationship between observation of children and educational theory is central to the teaching of this course: the theory should help you make sense of what you observe, while your observations should help you make sense of the theory. This perspective is reflected in the activities you will find in the blocks of study material. We recommend that you keep a notebook as you work through the course. You can use this both for the activities that you do at home and for those that involve obse
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