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4.6 What matters?

When the laptop is confirmed to be uncompromised, it is interesting that none of the characters cheers, although they all seem to be relieved. In other words, when the statement comes up, ‘laptop is uncompromised’, people seem to think that is ‘good’, the outcome is fine. They seem to have forgotten that the technician is probably dead at the time. So, in their deliberations, a person's life is forgotten. I am sure that, if they were reminded of it, they would, of course, say that thi
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6.8 Anticipating the arguments

  • 18. Have the objectives and perspectives of all the key stakeholders concerned with the decision been taken account of in the previous assessment of costs, benefits and risks?

  • 19. What are the reasons that this proposal is preferred over other op
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • make an effective business case for a change to an operations activity or similar using appropriate written and/or oral forms of communication;

  • show the widespread utility of operations management principles at all levels across all types of organisation;

  • introduce a transformation model of operations management, with stakeholder value as the principle output;

  • provide models, concepts and
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources:

Figures

Figures 33, 37, 38, 40: Courtesy of Trik
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1 Structural devices: a static role

The superb manufacturing techniques of microelectronics enable designers of integrated circuits to exercise complete control over the electrical characteristics of each component, such as a transistor, by specifying the shapes and sizes of their active regions. Using photolithographic mask-drawing software on their workstations, they can copy and paste blocks of identical devices all over the chip, knowing that when the design is finally realised in silicon, this extreme uniformity wil
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1.1 Overview

Why are disasters important? They attract public attention because there is great loss of life, or because the event happened suddenly and quite unexpectedly, or because the accident occurred to a new project that had been regarded as completely safe. Certainly, the aspect of suddenness is one that features in many catastrophes, and indeed, it is this feature by which a catastrophe is defined.

Great disasters are always traumatic, especially for those who endure them and come through al
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Introduction

This unit focuses on the Forth Road Bridge that connects Edinburgh with Fife. This suspension bridge continues to face a number of problems regarding its deteriorating condition. The short video included in this unit illustrates some of the major structural issues facing bridges and examines some of the proposed changes to the use of the Forth Road Bridge to help increase its lifespan.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Author(s): The Open University

3.3 Magnetic tape recorders

Experiments showed that the use of paper tape coated with iron oxide particles significantly improved the signal-to-noise ratio and enabled a lower tape speed to be used. A plastic-based version of this magnetic tape, developed by the German company BASF, led to the development of a commercial tape recorder with audio characteristics that could nearly match those of the gramophone record, but not at an economical price. Secret work on tape recorders was undertaken by the Germans throug
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3.1 Introduction

I've an opera here you shan't escape – on miles and miles of recording tape.

Flanders, M. and Swann, D. (1977) ‘The Song of Reproduction’ from The Songs of Michael Flanders and Donald Swann, London, Elm Tree Books and St George's Press, p. 99

Sounds, pictures, measurement data, financial statistics, personal details, etc. can all be recorded and stored on magnetic media, i.e. m
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2.1 Edison starts with cylinders

I had a little gramophone; I'd wind it round and round, and with a sharpish needle it made a cheerful sound.

Flanders, M. and Swann, D. (1977) ‘The Song of Reproduction’ from The Songs of Michael Flanders and Donald Swann, London, Elm Tree Books and St George's Press, p. 99

In 1877 the young American inventor Thomas Alva Edison finally completed development of an invention capable of ca
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • explain correctly the meanings of the emboldened terms in the main text and use them correctly in context;

  • give a brief account of the history of the record industry;

  • describe the methods used for storing analogue audio recordings introduced in the main text, highlighting their technological aspects;

  • make informed judgements as to the quality of a sound recording through analysis of the a
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3.1 Protein diversity

Of course, our bodies can't just be made up of squidgy bubbles of phospholipid, or we would collapse in a heap on the floor! Stiffer frameworks, both inside and outside the cells, also exist and help to define shape and add strength. These frameworks are formed largely from structural proteins, a class of polymeric materials that form fibres and filaments to provide mechanical support for cells and tissues. Structural proteins are made inside cells but are often then moved into the spa
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2 Construction with lipids

The cell membrane is constructed from lipids. Chemically, lipids are a rather varied group of compounds that include all the substances you might already think of as fats or oils. What they have in common is that they are all insoluble in polar liquids like water, but soluble in organic (carbon-based) solvents: by this I mean the sort of smelly solvents you tend to find in paints, glues and degreasing agents; chloroform is one example. Lipids make up the fatty components of living organisms a
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5.15 Summary of Section 5

It is probably worth summarising some of the main points you should take away from this section on primary vibrators. The first thing to remember is that when an instrument is excited, it vibrates strongly at certain frequencies called natural (or resonance) frequencies. The reason for this is that standing waves are set up in the instrument's primary vibrator at these frequencies. The next thing to note is that some primary vibrators, such as a string or an air column, have natural frequenci
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5.9 Vibrating air column: standing waves in a cylindrical tube closed at one end

We'll now turn our attention to the setting up of standing waves in an air column contained within a cylindrical tube that is open at one end but closed at the other. Straight away we can say that the closed end must be a displacement node since the air molecules can't move at this boundary. That means it must be a pressure antinode. The open end, as we saw previously, will be a displacement antinode (that is, a pressure node).

Now, you may recall that the distance between a node and a
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5.6 Vibrating air column

You learned in the previous section that for standing waves to be set up on a string there must be reflection. A travelling wave reaches the end of the string and is reflected. This results in a second travelling wave, which moves back up the string in the opposite direction to the first wave. The two travelling waves interact to produce a standing wave.

Standing waves are set up in an air column enclosed within a tube in a very similar way. Again there must be reflection. In this case,
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5.4 Vibrating string: normal modes of vibration

The frequencies at which standing waves can be set up on a string are the string's natural frequencies. They can be determined quite easily. The first thing to note is that the end of the string being held by the person is tightly gripped so any pulse or wave that returns to the person's hand will be reflected and inverted. Therefore both ends of the string can be considered to be fixed and so must be at nodes of the standing wave. But you learned earlier that the distance between adjacent no
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3 Sound production in musical instruments

Musical instruments come in all shapes and sizes and produce an enormous variety of different sounds. Yet, with the exception of certain electronic instruments, the basic physical principles by which sound is produced are the same for all instruments – including the human voice. In this section, I shall introduce some of these principles. These will then be expanded upon over the rest of the unit.

Remember I told you that when a musician plays an instrument they cause it to vibrate. T
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9.1 Frequency range

The lowest frequency humans can hear is approximately 20 Hz. The upper limit for humans is nominally 20 000 Hz (20 kHz), but this limit tends to decline with age, and for most of us it is well below this figure.

Activity 27 (Self-Assessment)

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8.2 Octave pitch and frequency increments

Because a doubling of frequency corresponds to an octave increase of pitch, it follows that there is no constant increment of frequency that always corresponds to a one-octave increment of pitch. That is to say, there is no fixed amount by which a frequency can be augmented that will always produce a one-octave pitch rise.

For instance, starting at the pitch A4 with a frequency of 440 Hz, we need to augment the frequency by 440 Hz to get the pitch one octave above (880 Hz). B
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