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6.2 Shaping knowledge

It seems inevitable that any understandings we have will have been shaped and influenced by other (past and present) members of the same culture(s) we belong to. Most of these influences ‘just happen’: they arise out of our experiences as part of a culture whose members have had their experiences and shared them over many centuries. However, knowledge can also be deliberately influenced by powerful elements within a society: as we saw in Section 5.3, the church suppressed Galileo's reason
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6.1 Knowledge and society

If I have seen farther than others, it is because I was standing on the shoulders of giants.

Sir Isaac Newton (Letter to Robert Hooke, 1676)

At the foreground of this final part of the unit is one of its more important themes – that knowledge is something held, developed and perpetuated both by and in the context of communities, societies and cultures. Newton's declaration to Hooke (above
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5.5 How society constructs scientific thinking

To understand science, it is important that we appreciate the contexts in which discoveries are made or suppressed. We can see from the account on the previous page that human understanding of the universe has changed significantly over time. The social and political climate in which scientists work has always had a profound influence on what can and cannot be said, done, published or even postulated as worthy of further investigation. (You could undertake a similar study of the debates on hu
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4.1 From awareness to understanding

In this section the mathematical content is more obvious as we talk explicitly about what it means to know and to think in mathematics. We will also address your own personal knowledge in the subject.

Like any other activity, doing and learning mathematics involves:

  • using and adapting existing knowledge;

  • acquiring and constructing new knowledge through thinking and learning;

  • building up links that enable known t
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El arte conceptual

Actividad 11

En esta actividad va a estudiar más a fondo el arte conceptual.

  1. Si usted sabe mucho sobre arte, haga el siguiente test, y luego compruebe sus respuestas leyendo el texto . Si prefier
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary and is used under licence.

Audio/ video materials

This extract is taken from L120 © 2002 The Open University.

Photographs and Ill
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Übung 18

Sie unterhalten sich jetzt mit Ihrem Freund Markus über die verschiedenen Sitten und Bräuche in einigen deutschen Regionen, die Sie in dieser Lerneinheit kennen gelernt haben. Als Vorbereitung lesen Sie den folgenden Dialog. Sprechen Sie dann in de
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Übung 15

Lesen Sie die folgenden Informationen über zwei Bräuche, die in Norddeutschland gepflegt werden, und beantworten Sie die Fragen.

Junggesellen werden mit Treppenfege
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Übung 12

Lesen Sie den folgenden, nicht ganz ernst gemeinten Artikel des Sprachwissenschaftlers Professor Johann Höfer und bearbeiten Sie die unten stehenden Aufgaben.

I bin
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4.2 Actividad 6

En esta actividad va a aclarar las ‘lagunas’ que tenga sobre el tema. De este modo podrá completar la comprensión de la secuencia de la actividad 5. Además podrá ampliar sus conocimientos generales sobre el mundo hispano.

1 Cri
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1.6.6 Professional bodies and societies

Consider joining a learned society or professional organisation. They can be very useful for conference bulletins as well as in-house publications, often included in the subscription. Don't forget to ask about student rates. Try looking for the websites of learned societies associated with your subject area (e.g. The Royal Society, the Institute of Electrical
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1.6.4 Blogs

The founder ofTechnorati  claims that the number of ‘blogs’ doubles every five months and that the creation rate is approaching two per second. One estimate I read in July 2010 put the number at 400 million ‘blogs’. Because these online diaries offer instant publishing opportunities, you potentially have access to a wealth of knowledge from commentators and experts (if they blog) in a wi
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1.4.5 M is for Method

Method is about the way in which a piece of information is produced. This is quite a complex area as different types of information are produced in different ways. These are a few suggestions to look out for:

Opinions – A lot of information is based on the opinion of individuals. They may or not be experts in their field (see P for Provenance) but the key message is to be clear that it is just an opinion and must be valued as such.

Research – You don’t have t
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1.4.3 R is for Relevance

Relevance is an important factor to consider when you are evaluating information. It isn’t so much a property of the information itself but of the relationship it has with your question or your ‘information need’. For example, if you are writing an essay about how Finnish relates to other Indo-European languages, a book or website about teaching Japanese in British schools would not be relevant. So there are a number of ways in which a piece of information may not be relevant to your qu
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1.3.8 Internet resources

There are many websites where you will find useful information about modern languages. With all information on the internet you need to make a judgement on the reliability of the information.

BBC Languages
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1.3.7 Encyclopedias

Encyclopedias can be useful reference texts to use to start your research. There are some available online, such as:

Wikipedia A freely available collaborative encyclopedia.
Encyclopedia Br
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1.3.2 Search engines and subject gateways

Although search engines and subject gateways will help you find the resources that you need, the types of information that you find will differ.

Search engines such as Google and Yahoo! search the internet for keywords or phrases, and then show you the results. These results are not mediated by the search engines, and therefore you need to use your own judgement on the reliability of the results. You may, for example, find websites written by experts, alongside websites written by someo
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1.2.1 Stating essential conditions

These structures are used to show conditions that are essential.

Must + infinitive

The location must have good road communications.

Must not + infinitive

It must not be more than two hours by lorry from London.

Have to + infinitive

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Introduction

When a company moves to a new site it is known as ‘relocation’. This is a big decision, involving everyone connected with the company – staff, customers, suppliers and shareholders. It also affects the families, friends and communities of the people involved with the company. This unit uses case studies of different companies to show the steps involved in relocation.

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2.10.2 Le musée Angladon-Dubrujeaud

Activité 53

Listen to Extract 71 in which you hear a museum guide talking about van Gogh. Match the events to the dates on which they occurred and put them in chronological order.

Trouvez les bonnes dates et remettez-les dans l
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