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Activity 26

Mainstream photographers, as we have seen, identified with traditions in the fine arts and aspirations of refinement and moral improvement. However, fairground and seaside operators exploited photography as a form of cheap popular entertainment. This and the fact that itinerants usually worked on spec rather than to commission ensured that they were generally viewed with contempt by the photographic establishment.

Contempt pervades the article entitled ‘Five minutes in a photographic
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2.2.1 Model 1: African + Roman = Roman dominance and end of African traits (assimilation)

This model proposes that following the Roman conquest Roman culture is introduced and dominates the previous African culture, which gradually dies out. In other words, the culture of the people of Africa was assimilated to Roman culture. In this model an African would in effect become a Roman and be so similar to a Roman that we might as well dispense with the term African and call everyone Roman. In this scenario we might imagine the importation of Roman political systems, religion, building
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • demonstrate an awareness of the problems related to evidence for supporting claims on ‘ordinary’ people’s attitudes

  • demonstrate an awareness of popular responses to the South African War (1899-1902)

  • understand attitudes to imperialism held by Americans.


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References

Flood, G. (1999) Beyond Phenomenology: Rethinking the Study of Religion, London: Cassell.
Freud, S. (1995) The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, trans .J. Strachey, Volume XXI (1927-1931), London: The Hogarth Press and The Institute of Psycho-analysis.
Glassie, H. (1995) 'Tradition', Journal of American Folklore, vol.10
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The Future For Finance
The financial crisis of 2008 has been widely blamed on poor regulation of financial institutions and the bonus driven casino culture. So what measures are the new coalition Government taking to ensure a crisis on this scale doesn’t happen again? Martin Upton of The Open University Business School’s Centre for Accounting The iTunes U team. The iTunes U Team at Th
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

3 Do all organisations need to be market oriented?

As you have seen, many marketing writers maintain that to be successful all organisations (commercial and non-profit) must be market oriented and must focus their attention on adding value to their products and services to satisfy their customers’ needs.

Leaving aside the word profit from the CIM's definition of marketing, at a conceptual level the process of becoming market orientated is concerned with identifying, anticipating and satisfying customers’ needs. Kotler (Drucker, 1992
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References

de Mooj, M. (2003) ‘Convergence and divergence in consumer behaviour: implications for global advertising’, International Journal of Advertising, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 183–202.
Hofstede, G. (c. 2007a) ‘A summary of my ideas about organizational cultures’ Geert Hofstede's Homepage [online] http://feweb.uvt.nl.center/hofstede/page4.htm (accessed 15 December 2007).
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4.2.6 Getting agreement to the chosen solution

It is important to establish consensus as far as possible within the project team on the best solution, and to record your decision. Depending on your reporting arrangements and the severity of the problem, you may then need to prepare a formal report with recommendations for action and take it to the project sponsor(s) for agreement. Solutions have to be ‘sold’ to ensure that they are acceptable.


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4.2.5 Choosing the best option

When you have collected a broad range of options, each possible solution should be assessed for its feasibility. As the feasible options are narrowed down, you may choose to analyse three or four in detail. Appraise the possible consequences of implementing each of these, against your criteria for cost, time and quality.


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Introduction

This unit will help you to develop the skills required when planning a project. You will examine the various components of a project plan, and be introduced to a number of tools and techniques to aid planning.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Fundamentals of Senior Management (B713) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this Author(s): The Open University

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1.1 The concept of 'social capital'

Fukuyama (1995) examines the importance of civil society defined through institutions including businesses, churches, universities, and schools and uses the concept of ‘social capital’ to describe how people work together for common purposes in organisations. Fukuyama argues that shared values lead to trust, which is crucial for society and the economy to function. He quotes from the distinguished economist Kenneth Arrow with approval:

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7.2 The importance of the market and the state: neo-liberalism and neo-Marxism

To begin with neo-liberalism, it is a key premise that the market is the primary means of coordinating economic activity, including the allocation of people to jobs. This assumes that rational actors make judgements about their earnings prospects to decide their best options – training to improve employability, as in Mandy's case, or accepting subsistence-level earnings, as Tamarla Owens did. To neo-liberals, both Mandy and Tamarla Owens would have used information they gleaned in their eve
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Introduction

This unit takes one aspect of the debate concerning the new economy – innovation in the form of the introduction of information and communication technologies – and places it in the historical context of industrial revolutions. Is the new economy really new or ‘just another’ industrial revolution?

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from DD202 Economics and economic change, which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study form
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5.2.4 Risk treatment

The risk treatment task is again carried out at unit level, in light of polices set out in Stages 1 to 3. The risks treated are those chosen for control at Stage 6.

  • Stage 7: select control objectives and controls For each risk chosen for control at Stage 6, a suitable control (countermeasure) must be selected from those suggested in the Standard or from elsewhere. The risks are treated in order of priority, according to the priority levels ass
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • describe the key points of the waterfall model applied to database development

  • appreciate the roles of various development artefacts, such as the data requirements document, conceptual data model and such like used to communicate between activities in the database development life cycle

  • communicate effectively about aspects of the development of databases.


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Introduction

Relational database systems underpin the majority of the managed data storage in computer systems. This unit presents an overview of the development life cycle for a database system and highlights how the database development differs from traditional software development.

This study unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course M359 Relational databases: theory and practice, which is no longer taught by the University. If you want to study formally with us, you ma
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Introduction

As adults we sometimes struggle to justify our feelings about particular books, but children are quite clear about what they like and don't like.

It is possible to get children to discuss why they liked or did not like particular books and to encourage them to think more deeply about the books they read.

This unit offers ideas and activities to engage pupils in discussing books. It is aimed at librarians, teaching assistants and other adults working with pupils in school libraries
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Introduction

This course introduces ideas which are likely to be of interest to a range of professionals interested in English language education, and is accessible to those who have not yet undertaken masters level study but might be interested in doing so in the future. It includes a variety of activities which help learners to relate theoretical discussion to professional practice.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of postgraduate study in Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

What value does art have in the school curriculum? This unit, primarily aimed at colleagues teaching art in schools, explores the justification for including art in the school curriculum together with some of the current criticisms commonly heard.

Find out more about studying with The Open University by visiting our online prospectus.<
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8.2 Broadening perception

Particular perspectives and points of view underpin speaking and writing. Being successful at many academic tasks, including balanced argument, often requires us to be conscious of and to try to break away from our usual perspectives and ways of thinking, and to attend to things we might not normally notice. The challenge is often to be more open-minded and broad in our thinking, to consider more than one point of view in the way that the caffeine article did. It can be useful to have strateg
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