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3.3.1 Care: a cautious definition

For study purposes, we do need a definition of care, just as we needed a definition of informal carer. So we propose that in the context of health and social care we define care as:

something that is needed when people cannot function in daily life without the practical help of others.

But, as I have shown, care is a loaded word. It is both a word used by ordinary people to mean love, tende
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2.4 Defining terms

Why are we spending so much time and energy on asking whether Lynne is a carer? Does it matter? It would matter if Lynne wanted to apply for financial or practical support as a carer. It matters to budget holders to know how many people qualify, because carers are eligible for financial assistance. It would also matter to organisations which campaign for the needs of carers – organisations like the Carers National Association, Mencap, Age Concern or MIND. It would matter to a social worker
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2.1 When is someone an informal carer?

Figure 2
Who are informal carers?

Section 1 explores what is meant by the term ‘informal carer’. ‘Informal carer’ is an official term that is
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8.1 Feelings about care relationships

Diane couldn't imagine being paid for what she did. She thought that, if she was paid, she would, ‘have felt obligated to do it’. This way it felt like her choice. ‘I wanted to make those choices freely.’

John described the basis of his caring for Mr Asghar as, ‘a mutually beneficial friendship … always has been’.

Enid emphasised that she looked on her caring as a parental responsibility. ‘They're my children and it's my duty to look after them … they weren't ask
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7.3 Other kinds of help

Diane said that Paul and Stanley helped her with dog minding, gardening, shopping and other jobs around the house. Sometimes they bought her presents.

John said that what he got from Mr Asghar was the reliability of long-term friendship, advice and support through his various recent problems.

Enid mentioned help from relatives and friends, whom she had come to rely on.

At home, Sarah got help from her mother, who was also disabled. She also got help from other students in he
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3 Audio clip 2: John Avery

Figure 2: John Avery (right) with Mr Asghor

John Avery, a single parent of a teenage son and a daughter, lived on a council estate on the outskirts
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Introduction

Arrangements for care and support which people manage for themselves or have organised for them privately or informally tell us something about the shifting borders between funded and non-funded care, between health and social care, and between paid and unpaid care work. They also demonstrate how the reality of the mixed economy of care is played out in the arrangements which people make for care and suipport in their own households.

This unit focuses on the care arrangments people make
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Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary and.is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence  See Terms and Conditions.


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3 When grief goes wrong

Most people experiencing a grief reaction do not need specific professional help, although everyone could probably do with as much support as they can get from friends and family. Indeed, labelling someone as ‘bereaved’ and therefore by definition different, and possibly in need of some form of intervention, may in itself be harmful. But sometimes the usual sequence of events does not go to plan; people may develop an excessively severe or extremely long-term reaction to their bereavement
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3.2 Feelings about being a ‘carer’

Carol, who looks after her mother and her aunt, feels the need to distinguish between being ‘a relative’ and ‘a carer’. She feels that health and social care practitioners don't always recognise who the carer is.

Julie, caring for her 11-year-old son who has severe learning and physical disabilities, complains about ‘the disbelief’ about the extent of help she provides.

Les and his wife, whose son has severe mental health problems, noticed that they tended to be ignore
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2.2 What is constructive social work?

Activity 3

1 hour 20 minutes

Read the following article: ‘What do we mean by “Constructive social work”?’

While you're reading, make notes on the theoretical and philosophica
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5 Comment on the audio clips

The benefits mentioned in the clips included a skills outlet, developing organising and networking skills, improvements to the members' self-esteem, and better social contact than before. There were also practical benefits in terms of getting help with household, gardening and computing problems. Any disadvantages were hard to identify. People were enthusiastic about their experiences. Through involving someone like Jan Hurst, the disadvantages of self-help with its tendency towards rather cl
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1 Fuel poverty

The audio clips in this unit feature interviews about fuel poverty in Scotland.

Activity

Read through the information about each of the participants, and then listen to the clips in Section 3. As you read, and while you listen, m
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Introduction

In this first unit, you will be hearing and reading about the issues faced by people living in poverty in Britain in 2000. This is intended to give you an understanding of what poverty is like from the perspective of the people themselves, both in terms of the experience of living on a very low income, and some of the effects this has had on their lives. One of the biggest problems facing people living on a very low income is how to afford adequate heating.

A particular aspect of povert
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4 Audio clip 1: John

In this first clip, Julia Johnson, from the Open University, talks to John, who had been sleeping rough in the city and living in an abandoned van in a car park for three weeks.

At the time of the interview, John was 43. He was born in a town near Swansea, but had spent much of his life in institutions. His childhood was spent in a large ‘mental handicap’ hospital, which has now closed. Some years after his discharge, he and his brother were arrested, and subsequently imprisoned for
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3 Audio and activity

Activity 1

In these audio clips, you will hear about the Chinese Welfare Association. At the time of recording, Anna Manway-Watson was its Director, and Lily Sau Han Braid, the Community Development Worker for older people
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8 Summary and key themes

In this unit you have been introduced to a diverse range of ideas about health. To recap, the themes and ideas you have met in this unit are:

  • The diversity of accounts of health. An important theme of this unit is that there is a great diversity in what people mean when they talk of health; sometimes these meanings conflict and sometimes they can coexist but health is a creative and multifaceted concept.

  • The importance of
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7 Moving to a positive paradigm

Aaron Antonovsky (1984) has called the emphasis on illness and disease the pathogenic paradigm and has stated that this disease-focused paradigm has dominated our healthcare system. He claims that there are five important consequences of this domination:

  1. ‘We have come to think dichotomously about people, classifying them as either healthy or diseased’ (p. 115). Those categorised as ‘healthy’ are normal, those categorised as non-healthy or ‘d
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6.3 Responsibility for health and illness

In Activity 6 you explored factors which influence people's experience of health and we noted that inequalities in health are clearly related to the conditions of people's lives, such as their housing, income and education. On the other hand, health education messages have tended to focus on behaviour – what we
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3.5 People's views on health

Health accounts, as well as being based in the experience of health, also relate to health behaviour. People's accounts of health are likely to be different at different stages in their lives. Two health promotion researchers, Backett and Davison (1992), have investigated the perceptions of health at different stages of life. Their work is based on two qualitative studies conducted in Edinburgh and South Wales. In these studies, health was also linked to health behaviours. The stage of life w
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