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8.3 The AND operation

The AND operation combines two binary words bit by bit according to the rules

  • 0 AND 0 = 0

  • 0 AND 1 = 0

  • 1 AND 0 = 0

  • 1 AND 1 = 1

In other words, only when both bits are 1 is the result 1. You may find it helpful to think of it this way: when one bit is one and the other bit is 1 the result is 1.

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3.4 Input and output considerations

CCDs are not inherently able to detect colour, only brightness. So it is necessary to rely on the fact that any colour of light can be made up from the three primary colours of light: red, blue and green. (Note that the three primary colours of light are different from the three primary colours of pigments.) Each CCD in the array is therefore overlaid with a red, blue or green filter and so detects the brightness of, respectively, the red light, the blue light or the green light falling on it
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Introduction

Computers are designed to receive, store, manipulate and present data. This unit explains how computers do this, with reference to the examples of a PC, kitchen scales and a digital camera. In particular it explores the idea that the data in a computer represents something in the real world.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Computers and processors (T224) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may w
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14.3 Personal Digital Assistants

Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers are small, portable computers. They each contain a small processor and have specially written operating systems. Two popular types of PDA at the time of writing (early 2005) are those running the Palm OS operating system and those using the Windows Mobile operating system, (also called Pocket PC). There is a range of applications purposely written for PDAs, but many also use special versions of popular applications like Microsof
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2.3 Models of an ICT system

To help me to introduce you to important ideas about ICT systems, I'm going to take a three-stage approach. ICTs involve conveying, manipulating and storing data. This is going to be the basis of my approach.

Firstly, in the next few sections, we'll look at ICT systems where the primary function is to convey data. We can think of these systems as communication systems and I'll use a mobile phone system as an example.

In sections 8–14, I'll focus on ICT systems wher
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should have developed an understanding of:

  • how you select appropriate techniques to tackle and solve problems in the discipline of information security management;

  • why security and its management are important for any modern organisation;

  • how an information security management system should be planned, documented, implemented and improved, according to the BSi standard on information security management.


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11.2 How do advertising cookies work?

Many websites host advertising banners, and these advertisements may place a ‘third-party cookie’ on your computer. This means that the cookie does not come from the website you are viewing but from one of the advertisers. There has been pressure on the browser manufacturers to control third-party cookies.

The website carrying the advertising banners may also set a cookie on your computer. The cookie records which advertisements you see as you view the web page and which advertiseme
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4.4 Quality, not quantity

4.4.1 Ranking

It is common for a web search to return hundreds, or even millions, of hits; certainly too many to check. But uncannily, the first few hits often contain just what you were looking for. How do search engines manage this seemingly miraculous feat?

The answer lies in techniques used to rank pages so that the ‘best’ are first. Each search engine uses differ
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7.1 Introduction

This section continues with the theme of networked devices by looking at a system of electronic tagging known as Radio Frequency Identity (RFID). In this system, an electronic tag is attached to an object (for example, the pin described in the The Road Ahead extract in the previous section) and an RFID reader is used to interrogate the tag wirelessly and receive information stored on it. We are using the word ‘interrogate’ here because the reader sends out a signal and the tag resp
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4.7 WiFi data rates and operating range

Just as for Ethernet, developments in technology have increased the achievable data rates since the first WiFi standard was developed in 1997. At the time of writing, the latest WiFi standard to be published – IEEE 802.11g – defines a data rate of 54 Mbps.

Activity 17: exploratory

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2.1 Processors

Figure 2 shows an advertisement for a personal computer (PC) published in February 2004. The main features of the computer are listed in this advert. The first item on the list is ‘Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor 2.80 GHz’. So this computer uses an Intel Pentium 4 Processor, running at
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4 The eBay phenomenon – what it means

Writers on e-business group Internet processes into four categories, using this grid:

Figure 13
Figure
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2.1 Exploring eBay

First, have a look around the eBay system to get a feel for how it works.

Go to the eBay website

Find an item that interests you, either by clicking on the categories in the left-hand panel …

The Categories displayed on eBay. It starts: Antiques &Art; Automotive (Cars | Classic Cars | Motorc</span><br><span class=Author(s): The Open University

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1 Introducing eBay

One of the earliest popular applications of the Web was an online auction system called eBay. Think of it as an enormous car-boot sale. In an ordinary (offline) auction system, you brought things you wished to sell to an auctioneer who catalogued and then sold them on your behalf at a physical auction attended by people who placed bids for the goods. There would be a series of bids with the auctioneer encouraging people to bid against each other, thereby raising the selling price. The highest
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7 Summary

The theme of this unit has been the impact that information and communication technologies have had on the news industry. I introduced this theme with a short historical overview of technology in the news industry followed by a look at how technology is used for newsgathering.

We have been looking in some detail at aspects of the underlying technologies used in newsgathering, including the basic components of digital camcorders and the methods of signal transmission over wires. We have
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6.2 Authority and the variety of information sources

Technology has massively increased the number and variety of news sources that we have access to. We still have printed books, magazines and newspapers, while digital techniques have increased the number of broadcast radio and TV channels that we can get. On the Web we have access to online versions of many of these. This allows us access to media that previously would have been inaccessible.

With traditional news sources such as these, we have some understanding of the authority that t
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3.2 ICT processes in newsgathering

The generic diagram of a communication system, as discussed previously, is shown in Figure 3. If we think of newsgathering as communication from the reporter in the field (User 1) to news editors in the studio (User 2), then we can relate some of the processes described by Higgins to the pro
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2.2 The role of technology in the broadcast news industry

Taylor's introductory comments

Taylor starts with some introductory comments. Notice the informal style he uses because this is essentially a script for a talk to a colloquium. Notice also the other issue that I raised earlier, that Taylor is assuming that his listeners are familiar with terms su
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2.1 Communication technologies

With the Industrial Revolution the idea of ‘news’ developed rapidly, and these days most people in the UK and other developed countries have concept of ‘the news’. We expect to be kept up to date with the news through various sources, and to satisfy this expectation we have the businesses of newsgathering and dissemination of news.

In this section you will be learning about the development of the technologies used for newsgathering and dissemination by reading extracts from a pa
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7.2.5 Virtual communities

A virtual community is a website which sells some product or service. In this respect there is no difference from an e-shop. The feature which distinguishes a virtual community is that the operator of the website provides facilities whereby the customers for a product or a service interact with each other, for example by pointing out ways a product can be improved. Technologies used for this interaction include mailing lists, bulletin boards and FAQ lists. The theory behind virtual communitie
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